__COMPUTERS,
SOFTWARE & Information Age__

__Hardware__

**William F.
Friedman**

During the 1920s, several new cipher machines were developed generally based on using typewriter mechanics and basic electrical circuitry. An early example was the Hebern Rotor Machine, designed in the US in 1915 by Edward Hebern.

Friedman realized that the new rotor machines would be important, and devoted some time to analyzing Hebern's design. Over a period of years, he developed principles of analysis and discovered several problems common to most rotor-machine designs

Friedman used his understanding of rotor machines to develop several that were immune to his own attacks. The best of the lot was the SIGABA—which was destined to become the US's highest-security cipher machine in World War II after improvements by Frank Rowlett(g) and Laurance Safford.

In 1939, the Japanese introduced a new cipher machine for their most sensitive diplomatic traffic, called "PURPLE", was different and much more difficult. After several months trying to discover underlying patterns in PURPLE ciphertexts, an SIS team led by Friedman and Rowlett, in an extraordinary achievement, figured it out.

Thus, by the end of 1940, SIS had constructed an exact analog of the PURPLE machine without ever having seen one. With the duplicate machines and an understanding of PURPLE, SIS could decrypt increasing amounts of Japanese traffic. One such intercept was the message to the Japanese Embassy in Washington, D.C., ordering an end (on December 7, 1941) to negotiations with the US. The message gave a clear indication of impending war, and was to have been delivered to the US State Department only hours prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor.

**John
Adam Presper** "**Pres**" **Eckert
Jr (g) with** **John Mauchly (g)**
designed the first general-purpose electronic digital computer (ENIAC) in 1945

**Herman
Heine Goldstine** was a mathematician

and computer scientist, who was one of the original developers of ENIAC, the first of the modern electronic digital computers.

**INTEL
Andrew S Grove co-founder of the microprocessor found in most personal
computers**

**Stanley
Mazor** is an American microelectronics engineer who was one of
the co-inventors of the world's first microprocessor architecture,
the Intel 4004,
together with Ted Hoff, Masatoshi
Shima(g),
and Federico Faggin(g)

In 1969, he
joined the year-old Intel Corporation, and was
soon assigned to work with Ted Hoff on
a project to help define the architecture of a microprocessor—often
dubbed a "computer-on-a-chip"—based on a concept developed earlier by
Hoff. The Japanese calculator manufacturer Busicom asked
Intel to complete the design and manufacture of a new set of chips. Credited
along with Faggin, Hoff, and Masatoshi Shima of
Busicom as co-inventor, Mazor helped define the architecture and the
instruction set for the revolutionary new chip, dubbed the Intel 4004.

**Maxwell Herman Alexander
Newman**, produced the world's first working, electronic stored-program electronic computer in
1948. The design
of *Colossus*, the first all-electronic Digital Programmable
computer by Max Newman. Although *Colossus* was not a
general purpose computer and had only limited programmability,it represented an
important milestone.

Newman, a Cambridge University professor of
mathematics, headed the "Newmanry," a special code-breaking unit at
Bletchley Park in England during World War II. *Colossus* was
designed and built to break the German Lorenz cipher, which was used by the
Nazi high command to encrypt its highest priority communications.

The *Colossus* machines (which were
physically constructed by a team working under the electrical engineer Tommy
Flowers (g)) played a critical role in securing Allied victory in Europe and
were influential in the post-war development of computers in England.^{ }(Contrary
to what is sometimes claimed, Alan Turing^{+}, who was Newman's
protégé, had relatively little direct involvement with *Colossus*,
although his ideas were extremely influential. Newman later declined to
become "Sir Max Newman" in protest against the treatment accorded
Turing^{+} by the postwar British government.)

** **

**Jan
Aleksander Rajchman**

He joined RCA Laboratory directed by Vladimir K. Zworykin in January 1936. He was a prolific inventor with 107 US patents among others logic circuits for arithmetic. He conceived the first read-only memory, which was widely used in early computers. He conceived and developed the selectively addressable storage tube, the ill-fated Selectron tube, and the core memory

**The technology that
underpins the emerging post-industrial "information age" is based on
semiconductor microelectronics and photonics. The theoretical basis of
the former is the band theory of solids, which was largely developed by Felix
Bloch and Sir Rudolf Peierls in the late 1920s. ^{2} The
theoretical foundation of the latter is, in addition to the band theory of
solids, the quantum theory of radiation, developed by Albert Einstein in
1917. The transistor was invented and patented in the 1920s by Julius
Edgar Lilienfeld. [Its re-invention some twenty years later earned Bell
Telephone Laboratories the Nobel Prize, but Bell Labs was forced to abandon all
patent claims to the field-effect transistor (which today dominates modern
electronics) because of Lilienfeld's prior work.] The first working laser
was demonstrated in 1960 by Theodore Maiman, based on a theoretical design
concept proposed by Charles Townes (non-Jewish) and Arthur
Schawlow*. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the physical process
underlying the invention of MRI diagnostic imaging, was discovered in
molecular beam studies by I. I. Rabi in 1938 and later extended to bulk
matter spectroscopy by Edward Purcell (non-Jewish) and Felix Bloch. The
atomic clock, an essential component in such systems as GPS, was proposed by
Rabi in 1944 and first demonstrated by Harold Lyons in 1949.**

__Supercomputing__

The
invention of parallel supercomputing architectures by Stephen Unger,
Daniel Slotnick, David Schaefer, and Włodzimierz Holsztyński. Unger,
Slotnick, Schaefer, and Holsztyński are four of the "eight men [who]
dominate the history of SIMD computer architectures."^{ 6}
SIMD (single instruction, multiple data) refers to the basic parallel
processing technique employed in the earliest supercomputers.^{7}
Unger was the first to propose and explore such architectures in the late
1950s. Slotnick designed SOLOMON in the early 1960s and built the first
parallel processing prototypes. He was later the architect of __Illiac
IV__, the first important parallel supercomputer, which had up to 256
processing elements. Built with 64 processing elements in the early 1970s
with ARPA (now DARPA) funding and operated by NASA, Illiac IV remained the
world's fastest computer until its shutdown in 1981. In the late 1970s
and early 1980s, Schaefer initiated and managed the development of
NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP), the first truly massively
parallel supercomputer, with 16,384 processing elements. Holsztyński
designed the Geometric-Arithmetic Parallel Processor (GAPP) in
1981. GAPPs with hundreds of thousands of processing elements are used
today in real-time video image processing applications such as image
enhancement and noise reduction, video data compression, and format and frame
rate conversion.

__Printed
Circuit Board__

**Paul Eisler** was
an Austrian inventor born in Vienna. Among his innovations were the printed circuit board’

**Lee
Felsenstein** a computer
engineer who played a central role in the development of
the personal computer. He was one of the original
members of the Homebrew Computer Club and the
designer of the Osborne 1, the first mass-produced portable
computer.

Before
the Osborne, he designed the Intel 8080 based
"SOL" computer from Processor Technology, the Penny Whistle modem, and other early
"S-100 bus"
era designs. His shared-memory __alphanumeric video display__ design,
the Processor Technology VDM-1 video display
module board, was widely copied and became the basis for the standard display
architecture of personal computers.

** Ralph Benjamin** Computer Mouse

Benjamin invented the first trackball called *roller ball* in 1946 patented
in 1947. It became the mouse** invented by Douglas Englebart (g) in 1968.**

Between 1947 and 1957 Benjamin developed the first force-wide integrated Command and Control System. This included patenting the use of an interlaced cursor controlled by a tracker ball to link displays to stored digital information, the first ever digital compression of video data, and the creation of the navy's first digital data link and network which is still in use NATO-wide as "Link 11".

__USB Flash Drive__

Flash memory was invented by Fujio Masuoka (g) in the early 1980s.

Amir Ban, Dov Moran, and Oron Ogdan of M-Systems, an Israeli company, obtained a patent entitled "Architecture for a Universal Serial Bus-Based PC Flash Disk".

__Battery__

**Stanford Robert **was an engineer, scientist and inventor who
over a span of fifty years was granted well over 400 patents,
mostly in the areas of energy and information. Many
of his inventions have had wide-ranging applications. Among the most prominent
are: the nickel-metal hydride battery, which has
been widely used in laptop computers, digital
cameras, cell phones, and electric and hybrid cars;
flexible thin-film solar energy laminates and panels; flat screen liquid crystal displays; rewritable CD and
DVD discs hydrogen fuel cells; and nonvolatile phase-change memory.

**Samuel M. Genensky** computer scientist, best known as an inventor for
devices to assist sight-impaired persons. He was also well known for his
advocacy on behalf of the blind.

**CELL
PHONE invented by Motorola at its laboratory in Israel**

**CELL
PHONE CAMERA invented by Phillippe Kahn**

**Michael Saul Dell** is
the founder, chairman and CEO of Dell
Technologies, one of the world's largest technology infrastructure
companies.

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__Software__

**The Instruction
set for ENIAC, (the programming language) for the first general-purpose
electronic computer
was created by John Von Neumann**

**Adele Goldstine** (née **Katz) **was an American mathematician
and computer programmer. She wrote the manual for the first electronic digital
computer, ENIAC.
Through her work programming the computer, she was also an instrumental player
in converting the ENIAC from a computer that needed to be reprogrammed each
time it was used to one that was able to perform a set of fifty stored instructions.^{}

^{}

**Marlyn Wescoff Meltzer** was one of the six original programmers of ENIAC, the first
general-purpose electronic digital computer.

**Ruth
Teitelbaum** (née **Lichterman **was
one of the original programmers for the ENIAC computer and
one of the first computer programmers in the world.

**Heinz Joseph Gerber** , Joseph Gerber pioneered the
marriage between computation and manufacturing, transforming so many industries
that it is difficult to imagine what the world would look like without
him."—Shirley Ann Jackson, President, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.” He was one of the first to recognize
and develop the productivity-enhancing potential for computer automation in
skill-intensive industrial sectors.

He invented the Gerber Variable Scale, a
graphical-numerical computing device which became known as the greatest engineering tool
since the slide rule^{}

^{}

__ __

Gerber also introduced the first digital plotter, initially used for precisely plotting enemy battleship positions on maps, the first digital motion-controlled machine to create graphics. NASA's Johnson Space Center later relied on Gerber's plotters for communications analysis and graphical data display for the first lunar landing,

In the early 1960s, Gerber introduced the first automated machines for drafting. Gerber's automated drafting technologies enabled the design of complex design products, such as the first "jumbo" military and commercial aircraft, the U.S. Air Force C-5 Transport by Lockheed Martin and the Boeing 747. This technology was credited with integrating the engineering design function with the numerically controlled machine tools in the aircraft, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, dramatically improving cost and manufacture time. Gerber's automated systems would capture three quarters of the automated drafting system market during the following two decades.

Gerber also invented and introduced a novel form of plotter that used a controlled beam of light instead of an ink-pen, to draw digital graphics directly on photographic film. The world's most accurate printing technology, the "photoplotter" reduced the cost and time of fabricating circuit boards and enabled production of more sophisticated, miniaturized, and multi-layered printed circuit boards and integrated circuits. The photoplotter "revolutionized the production of printed circuit board artwork." Ultimately, the company would provide a suite of numerically controlled and computer-based tools for design through inspection of circuit boards. Gerber's computerized manufacturing process played a leading role in the consumer electronics revolution, from pocket radios to computers. The photoplotter was also used to manufacture over 75% of the CRT color television screens and the masters for the original Universal Product Code (UPC) barcodes.

In the late 1960s, American apparel manufacturing was labor-intensive, completely without automation, and rapidly leaving the country for cheap foreign labor. Gerber developed a numerically controlled machine (the GERBER cutter S-70) for cutting large quantities of tall stacks of cloth accurately—3,500 pieces for 50 men's suits in less than three minutes. The GERBERcutter has been widely cited as the most important technological advance of the century, because it offered apparel factories significant savings in wasted cloth, which was the greatest cost factor in producing a garment, and because it enabled a computer-automated manufacturing system.

Within two years,
Gerber introduced the first numerically
controlled machines for sewing (the
GSM-70) and producing pattern layouts, known as "markers"
(the MP-26). Ultimately, his company would develop computer-controlled systems
for the designing, digitizing, grading, and prototyping of
apparel patterns,
and an integrated system that included fabric spreaders, parts-moving
systems, concept design, and __product data management__. As this system
slowed the departure of the U.S. apparel manufacturing industry by more than a
generation, leaders in the industry from manufacturing, labor, and other
quarters hailed Gerber as its "father of apparel automation" and
"the savior of the [American apparel] industry.

**Ralph Henry Baer** (born **Rudolf
Heinrich Baer)**is considered to have been the inventor of video games,
specifically of the concept of the home video game console

**Noam
Chomsky**

The invention of context-free languages by Noam Chomsky. This work was based on Emil Post's theory of production systems in mathematical logic. It is the basis of the BNF notation widely used to specify the syntax rules of programming languages. Chomsky's hierarchical classification of formal languages initiated the field of formal language theory in computer science.

**Data Compression**

The invention of the LZ data compression algorithm by Jacob Ziv and Abraham Lempel. Although LZ coding was not the first data compression technique invented, it is today the most widely used in commercial systems. It underpins PDF, GIF, TIFF, ZIP, and other widely used file formats.

**Abraham Lempel** is an Israeli computer
scientist and one of the fathers of the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithms.

**Jacob Ziv** - Israeli computer scientist who, along with Abraham Lempel,
developed the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithms

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__Internet__

**Paul Baran, **born **Pesach
Baran **was a Polish-American engineer who was a pioneer in the development
of __computer networks__.
He was one of the two independent inventors of __packet switching__, which is today
the dominant basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide, and
went on to start several companies and develop other technologies that are an
essential part of modern digital communication.

__ __

__ __

__ __

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__Computer Virus__

**Frederick
B. Cohen** is best known for his pioneering
work on computer viruses, and best known as the inventor of computer
virus defense techniques in widespread use.

In 1983, while at USC, he wrote a program for a parasitic application that seized control of computer operations, one of the first computer viruses, He wrote a short program, as an experiment, that could "infect" computers, make copies of itself, and spread from one machine to another. It was hidden inside a larger, legitimate program, which was loaded into a computer on a floppy disk.

One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Cohen's 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses.

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__Artificial Intelligence__

__ __

Artificial Intelligence term coined by John McCarthy

The interpretation of thermodynamic entropy as
an information__ __metric by Leo Szilard. Szilard's 1929 analysis
of the Maxwell's demon paradox "is now considered to be the earliest known
paper in what became the field of 'information theory' in the 1950s and
1960s."^{ 1} Other important information metrics were
formulated by John von Neumann, Solomon Kullback, and Alfréd Rényi. The
von Neumann entropy, e.g., is the quantum generalization of Szilard's classical
information measure and is one of the fundamental concepts in quantum
information theory.

The co-founding of the field of artificial intelligence by Marvin Minsky, Herbert Simon*, and John McCarthy*. (Allen Newell(g) is considered to have been the other one of its four founders.)

**Alexander Y. Tetelbaum** is pioneer in
the Electronic Design Automation (EDA)
and Artificial Intelligence (AI)
industries since the 1960s. He holds more than 40 US patents and is the
author and co-author of 250 publications, including 13 books.

**Kenneth Yigael Goldberg** is
an American artist, writer, inventor, and researcher in the field of robotics
and automation.
He received his Ph.D. in computer
science from Carnegie Mellon University in
1990 While studying abroad in Edinburgh, Goldberg took a course on
artificial intelligence that began his interest in robotics and their artistic
potential.^{ }

^{}

In his PhD dissertation, Goldberg developed the first
algorithm for orienting (feeding) polygonal parts and proved that the algorithm
can be used to orient any part up to rotational symmetry.^{[12]} He
also patented the kinematically yielding gripper, a new robot gripper that
complies passively to hold parts securely without sensing. His research has
resulted in eight United States patents

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**Programming Languages**

**David Karel **is best known for his work
on dynamic logic, computability, database
theory, software engineering and modelling biological systems. In
the 1980s he invented the graphical language of Statecharts for
specifying and programming reactive systems, which has been adopted as part of
the UML standard. Since the late 1990s he
has concentrated on a scenario-based approach to programming such systems,
launched by his co-invention (with W. Damm) of Live Sequence Charts.

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__Cryptography__

**Mordechai
Meirovitz** was an Israeli telecommunications
expert. Meirovitz invented the code-breaking board game *Master Mind*. After being rejected by
leading games companies, he sparked the interest of a Leicester-based
company, Invicta Plastics,
which restyled and renamed the game. Released
in 1971, the game sold over 50 million sets in 80 countries, making it the most
successful new game of the 1970s

__Philippe Kahn__

__ __

**Philippe Kahn** is an engineer,
entrepreneur and founder of four technology companies:

Borland, Starfish Software, LightSurf Technologies, and Fullpower Technologies. Kahn is credited with creating the first camera phone, being a pioneer for wearable technology intellectual property, and is the author of dozens of technology patents covering Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI) modeling, wearable, eyewear, smartphone, mobile, imaging, wireless, synchronization and medical technologies.

** **

As a student, Kahn developed software for the MICRAL, which is credited by the Computer History Museum as the first ever microprocessor-based personal computer.

In 1997, Kahn created the first camera phone solution
sharing pictures instantly on public networks. The impetus for this invention
was the birth of his daughter. He had been working for almost a year on a
web server-based infrastructure for pictures, that he called Picture Mail. At
the hospital, while his wife was in labor, Kahn jury-rigged a
connection between a mobile phone and a digital camera and sent off photos in
real time to the picture messaging infrastructure he had running in his home.^{}Kahn
later said "I had always wanted to have this all working in time to share
my daughter’s birth photo, but I wasn’t sure I was going to make it. It’s
always the case that if it weren’t for the last minute, nothing would ever get
done."

**Jacob Ziv** - Israeli computer scientist who, along with Abraham Lempel,
developed the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithms.

__Cryptography__

**Eli Biham** is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst,
who invented (publicly) differential cryptanalysis, That same
technology had been invented at least twice before. A team at IBM discovered it
during their work on DES, and was requested/required to keep
their discovery secret by the NSA, who evidently knew about it as well.

**Daniel Boneh** - is one of the principal contributors to the development
of pairing-based cryptography from the
Weil Pairing, along with Matt Franklin(g) of the University of California, Davis.
They are
particularly known for the Boneh–Franklin
scheme, a cryptography scheme that uses the mathematics
of elliptic curves to automatically
generate public and private key pairs based on
the identities of the communicating parties.
In 2013, he and Boneh were winners of the Gödel Prize for
their work on this system.

**Martin
Hellman**

The co-invention of public-key cryptography by Martin Hellman. Hellman and Whitfield Diffie(g) devised the Diffie-Hellman algorithm for secure key distribution over nonsecure channels.

**RSA**

The co-invention of RSA by Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman. RSA (which is named for its three co-inventors, Shamir, Adleman, and Ronald Rivest (g)) is the most widely used public-key algorithm.

**ECC**

The co-invention of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) by Neal Koblitz and Victor S. Miller (independently). Based on concepts rooted in algebraic geometry, ECC is widely deployed as the leading successor to RSA. Relative to RSA, it provides greater strength with much smaller cryptovariables. (It does, however, share the same potential vulnerability to quantum computational attack.)

**Quantum Cryptogtaphy**

The invention of quantum cryptography by
Stephen Wiesner. Although quantum key distribution was invented in the
mid-1980s by others, it was specifically acknowledged to have been inspired by
Wiesner's *circa* 1970 work that established the basic
principles underlying the use of quantum mechanics to achieve information
security.

**William
Friedman**

The development of mathematical and statistical
cryptanalysis by William Friedman. Friedman's innovations are ranked
amongst the greatest in the history of cryptology; he supervised the
breaking of the Japanese diplomatic code PURPLE in 1940 and directed US
cryptanalysis during World War II. Other important World War II
cryptologists included Solomon Kullback, Leo Rosen, and Abraham Sinkov in the
US and Max Newman*, I.J. Good, and Leo Marks in England. Newman and Good
were instrumental in the design of *Colossus*, which was used to
break the Lorenz cipher employed by the German high command. Marks, the
chief cryptologist of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) of MI6,
revolutionized the one-time pad.

**Michael
Rabin**

The invention of nondeterministic algorithms by Michael Rabin. Such algorithms employ Monte Carlo methods to provide efficiently computable solutions that are correct with high (but less than one hundred percent) probability to many problems whose exact solution is computationally intractable. Rabin's probabilistic primality testing, e.g., is essential to the practical implementation of RSA public-key cryptography.

** **

**Wiener
Filter **

The invention of the Wiener filter by Norbert
Wiener. The Wiener filter is an optimal filter for extracting signals
from noise in stationary stochastic systems and is one of the central results
in statistical communication theory, a field pioneered by
Wiener. (A version of the Wiener filter was also formulated
independently by Andrei Kolmogorov(g).) The nonlinear, recursive Wiener
filter, its extension to nonstationary systems for use in tracking and
guidance was first formulated by Peter Swerling in 1959.^{10}
Wiener and Alexander Khinchine independently derived the Wiener-Khinchine
theorem, another central result in statistical communication theory.

** **

**The
co-invention of BASIC by John Kemeny. Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz(g)**

**developed
this popular programming language. ****. **** Also at IBM, Adin Falkoff collaborated
with Kenneth Iverson(g) on the design and development of the array
processing language APL. Ada, an advanced
programming language adopted by the US Department of Defense as its standard
high-level computer language in the 1980s and 1990s, was designed by Jean
Ichbiah. LISP, the second-oldest high-level programming
language still in use (primarily in artificial intelligence research), was
invented by John McCarthy* in 1958. Barbara Liskov was awarded the 2008
ACM Turing Award for fundamental advances in programming language design.
The ACM press release noted that her innovations "are now the basis of
every important programming language since 1975, including Ada, C++, Java, and
C#."**

**The
invention of convolutional codes by Peter Elias. Important decoding
algorithms for these error correction codes were invented by Barney
Reiffen, Robert Fano, and Andrew Viterbi.**

**The
co-invention of the Reed-Solomon error correction code by Gustave
Solomon. Reed-Solomon and Viterbi- or Fano-decoded
convolutional codes, or hybrid concatenations of the two, are probably the most
widely used error correction techniques at present.**

**The
invention of statistical decision theory by Abraham
Wald. Among other applications, statistical decision theory
plays an important role in radar, control, and communication. Its
minimax decision rules derive from John von Neumann's theory of optimal
strategies (theory of games).**

**The
invention of dynamic programming by Richard Ernest Bellman. This
procedure solves sequential, or multi-stage, decision problems and is one
of the foundations of modern control theory. It also constitutes the
basis for many powerful algorithms, including the Viterbi algorithm, invented
by Andrew Viterbi, that is used to decode convolutional codes employed in error
correction and in CDMA and GSM digital cellular telephony.**

** Michael Oser Rabin **is an Israeli mathematician and

__computer scientist__ and
a recipient of the Turing Award. Rabin researched logic, and
worked on other purely mathematical problems which became the foundation of
what would later be known as computer
science

__MONTE
CARLO TECHNIQUE__** created by Stanisław Marcin Ulam** **The invention of the Monte Carlo
method by Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann. This statistical
numerical method is one of the cornerstones of computer simulation
science. Von Neumann invented the first computer-based random number
generator for use in Monte Carlo simulations.**

__ORACLE__

The company sells its own
__database
software and technology__. Lawrence Joseph Ellison co-founded
Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner(g) and Ed Oates(g) under the name **Software
Development Laboratories** (**SDL**) Ellison took
inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd(g)
on relational database management systems (RDBMS) named "A
Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks."^{[10]}

** Larry
Tessler**created the
Cut & Paste feature now common on computers.

**PACKET SWITCHING** Leonard Kleinrock created the
mathematical basis for packet switching which is the basis for the operation of
the Internet.

The invention of Alohanet (precursor
to Ethernet__)__ by Norman Abramson. Alohanet was a
packet-switched research network that solved the major problem of packet
interference, or "packet collision." Alohanet was further
developed by Robert Metcalfe^{+} into Ethernet (which Metcalfe^{+} originally
called the Alto Aloha network), the standard method used in local area computer
networking. Radia Perlman's spanning tree protocol, which solved the
problem of broadcast storms due to network switching loops, was the critical
enabler that allowed Ethernet to realize high levels of robust network
complexity.

**The
Internet**

**Leonard
Kleinrock, Paul Baran, Vinton Cerf, and Robert Kahn. together with Donald
Davies(g) and Lawrence Roberts(g) are the six individuals most
frequently cited as principal inventors of the Internet. Kleinrock, Cerf,
Kahn, and Roberts(g) were awarded the US National Academy of
Engineering's half-million dollar Draper Prize in 2001 for the
development of the Internet**

**Baran, Kleinrock, Davies(g), and Roberts(g) received
the first IEEE Internet Award in 2000 for "their early, preeminent
contributions in conceiving, analyzing and demonstrating packet-switching
networks, the foundation technology of the Internet." Cerf, Kahn,
and Baran received US National Medals of Technology, the former two in
1997 and the latter in 2007. Kleinrock was awarded the US National Medal
of Science in 2007. Cerf and Kahn co-invented the TCP/IP
protocol for integration of heterogeneous networks, which is the basis of the
Internet's "inter-networking" architecture. They shared the
2004 ACM Turing Award for this work, and in 2005 each received the US
Presidential Medal of Freedom.**

**The Internet
protocol suite (TCP/IP) was developed in the
1970s and became the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET, incorporating
concepts from the French CYCLADES project
directed by Louis Pouzin. The
Internet is a worldwide collection of hardware systems which communicate with
each other using that protocol.**

**The Internet allows one computer to “talk” to another
computer if they both use the Internet Protocol.**

**By contrast, the World Wide Web allows one person to “talk”
to another person via the Internet. The World Wide Web was created by Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee(g)**

**The
co-invention of spread spectrum communications by Hedy
Lamarr. Lamarr (the Hollywood actress) and George Antheil(g) (a Hollywood
composer) received US Patent No. 2,292,387, "Secret Communication
System," in 1942 for the invention of frequency-hopped spread
spectrum. The digital form of spread spectrum that is widely used in
cellular communications (CDMA) was developed by Qualcomm, a company founded by
the information theorists Irwin Jacobs and Andrew Viterbi. Jacobs
received the US National Medal of Technology in 1994 and Viterbi received the
US National Medal of Science in 2007. Both were recognized for their
pioneering innovations in digital wireless communications. Joel Engel
also received the Medal of Technology in 1994 as one of the two "fathers
of the cellular phone" for his work on the development of the basic
network architecture used worldwide in cellular telephony.**

**OPERATING
SYSTEMS**

The Operating system makes a computer available for
software to operate**.**

John von Neuman created the concept of storing the program and data inside the computer is the basis for all modern computers

**The
design of the logical architecture employed in virtually all modern
computers by John von Neumann. The von Neumann architecture was
incorporated into the design of EDVAC, the first all-electronic, binary,
stored-program, general purpose computer. ^{4} Von Neumann's 1946
paper "Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic
Computing Instrument" has been described as "the most influential
paper in the history of computer science ... the ideas it contains, collectively
known as the von Neumann machine, have provided the foundation for
essentially all computer system developments since that date." ^{5}
Von Neumann also invented the theory of system fault tolerance and
the cellular automata model of computation. The universal
von Neumann constructor, a generalization of the universal Turing machine that
emerged out of von Neumann's theory of self-reproducing automata, is one
of the foundational concepts in the field of molecular nanotechnology.**

** **

**The
invention of the MINIX operating system by Andrew Tanenbaum. MINIX
was the precursor to, and inspiration for, the widely used Linux operating
system.**

**Linux** is
a family of open-source Unix-like operating
systems based on the Linux kernel,
which is an operating system kernel first released on
September17,1991, by Linus Torvalds(g).

__SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS__

**Bloomberg L.P**., is a
financial information, software and media firm that is known for its __Bloomberg Terminal__.
Bloomberg spent the next twenty years as its chairman and CEO.

**Converting
Text to Speech Ray Kurzweil**

**FACEBOOK
Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo P Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz 3 of 4 cofounders **

**GOOGLE Larry Page, Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin co
founders**

The invention of Google** by Sergey Brin and
Larry Page. The algorithm employed by Google, the most powerful
and widely used search engine on the Internet, employs an adaptation of
the citation frequency "impact factor" metric originally invented in
the 1950s by Eugene Garfield to rank the relative influence of scientific
researchers, articles, and journals.**

**INSTAGRAM Kevin Systrom, Mike Krieger co founders**

**MICROSOLUTIONS
(Compuserve) Mark Cuban founder**

**MYSPACE Richard Rosenblatt founder**

**PDA Personal Digital Assistant Donna Dubinsky CEO
& co-developer**

** **

**PAYPAL
Max Rafael Levchin co founder **

**SALESFORCE founder
Mark Russell Benioff **

** **

**SPREADSHEET **

__The invention of the computer
spreadsheet__** by Dan Bricklin and Robert
Frankston. Bricklin and Frankston's VisiCalc spreadsheet was the first
"killer app." The Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet program, the most
successful software product of its time, was developed by Jonathan Sachs and
Mitchell Kapor.**

**TRIPADVISOR cofounded by Langley Steinert and Stephen
Kaufer**

** **

**WINDOWS
XP operating system created in Israel**

**COMPUTER
LEASING created by Saul Steinberg LEASCO**

**The invention of
cryptocurrency by David Chaum. In his seminal 1982 paper, Chaum
established the concept of secure digital cash, the first cryptocurrency.
Chaum's invention anticipated by several decades the now widespread recognition
of the issue of electronic privacy in financial and other transactions.**

__COMPUTER SCIENCE__

The co-invention of blockchain by Stuart Haber. In 1991, Haber and W. Scott Stornetta(g) introduced this concept for a shared, tamper-proof, decentralized transaction ledger. Blockchain is widely claimed to have the potential to revolutionize e-commerce (and more) by greatly increasing the efficiency, confidentiality, and trust with which online transactions are conducted and recorded.

The introduction of the diagonal argument proof
method by Georg Cantor*. This method is central to the derivation of
the incompleteness and noncomputability results of Gödel^{+}, Turing^{+},
Church^{+}, and Post that lie at the foundation of theoretical computer
science. In a 1936 paper, Emil Post described a mechanical definition of
computation, known as the Post machine, which is equivalent to the Turing
machine introduced by Alan Turing^{+} in a paper that appeared
several months later. Post had understood the undecidability implications
of such a definition as early as 1921, but had hesitated to publish and lost
priority to Gödel^{+}, who approached the problem from a very
different perspective in his 1931 paper. Post was also one of the
four principal founders of the theory of recursive functions, which is of
immense importance in theoretical computer science.^{2}

The co-discovery of NP-completeness by Leonid
Levin. Levin and Stephen Cook^{+} independently
discovered and proved what is now referred to as the Cook-Levin theorem, the
central result concerning the *P = NP?* question, which is the
major open problem in theoretical computer science. Richard Karp
introduced the terms "P" and "NP" and defined
NP-completeness (although not the term itself) in its present form. He
also identified the decision problem formulations of many well-known,
combinatorially intractable problems as being NP-complete. Levin, Karp,
and Manuel Blum are considered to be three of the six founders of the field of
computational complexity theory.

The development of computer algebra (symbol
manipulation) programs by Jean Sammet (FORMAC), Carl Engelman (MATHLAB),
Joel Moses (MACSYMA), and Stephen Wolfram (*Mathematica*).

The invention of reversible computation theory by Rolf Landauer. Reversible computation circumvents the thermodynamic limits on irreversible computation established by John von Neumann, and is one of the foundations of quantum computing. The ballistic architecture, or Fredkin gate, model of reversible computation was introduced by Edward Fredkin.

The invention of quantum computing by Paul Benioff, Richard Feynman, and David Deutsch.

__The invention of DNA computing__ by Leonard Adleman.

The invention of fuzzy logic by Max Black and Lotfi Zadeh* (independently).

The invention of algorithmic complexity by Ray
Solomonoff. Also termed Kolmogorov complexity or algorithmic
information theory, Solomonoff's 1964 work was later arrived at independently
by Andrei Kolmogorov^{+} (1965) and Gregory Chaitin (1969).

The invention of the SIMPLEX linear
programming algorithm by George B. Dantzig. Linear
programming (LP), invented independently by Dantzig and Leonid
Kantorovich, is a powerful optimization technique that is widely
used in economics and engineering. It has been estimated that, aside from
database operations such as sorting and searching, LP consumes more computer
time than any other mathematical procedure.^{9} The SIMPLEX
algorithm remains LP's fundamental numerical solution technique.

The invention of the ellipsoid method of convex
optimization by Naum Shor and, independently, by Arkadi Nemirovski and
David Yudin. This technique, which was successfully employed by Leonid
Khachiyan^{+} to prove the polynomial-time complexity of linear
programming, underlies most modern results concerning the computational
complexity of convex optimization programs. The ellipsoid method provided
the first effective solver for semidefinite programs (which are encountered in
many engineering applications) and has led to significant advances in
combinatorial optimization.

The invention or co-invention of four of *CiSE*'s
"Top Ten Algorithms of the Century" by Stanislaw Ulam, John von
Neumann, George Dantzig, Cornelius Lanczos, Leslie Greengard, and Vladimir
Rokhlin. The January/February 2000 issue of *Computing in
Science & Engineering*, a joint publication of the American Institute of
Physics and the IEEE Computer Society, assembled a list of "the ten
algorithms with the greatest influence on the development and practice of
science and engineering in the 20th century." In addition to the
Monte Carlo method and the SIMPLEX algorithm discussed above, the top ten
algorithms included the Krylov subspace iteration method for the solution of
large systems of linear equations (Lanczos) and the fast multipole algorithm
for the solution of many-body problems (Greengard and Rokhlin).

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__Programming
Languages__

**FORTRAN**was the
first macro computer Programming language. At least one-third of the nine-person team that
developed __FORTRAN __under John Backus(g) at IBM were Jewish. ** ****Richard Goldberg, **and**
Irving Ziller **part that IBM team.

**LISP **the second
oldest computer programming language developed by** John McCarthy**

**BASIC **programming
language John George
Kemeny Co-creator

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__Turing Award Winners__

**Alan Mathison Turing**(g) was an
English

mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher,
and __theoretical biologist__. Turing was
highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation
of the concepts of algorithm and computation with
the Turing machine, which can be considered a model
of a general-purpose computer. Turing is
widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.^{}

^{}

During the Second World
War, Turing was a leading participant in the breaking of German ciphers
at Bletchley Park.

Turing was prosecuted
in 1952 for __homosexual acts__, and apparently committed suicide.

·
Leonard
Adleman, RSA cryptography, DNA computing, Turing Award (2002)^{[2]}

·
Adi Shamir, RSA cryptography, DNA computing, Turing Award (2002)^{[2]}

·
Lenore and Manuel Blum (Turing
Award (1995)), Venezuelan-American computer scientists, computational
complexity; parents of Avrim Blum (Co-training)^{[4]}

·
Robert Fano,
Italian-American information theorist^{[7]}

·
Ed Feigenbaum,
artificial intelligence, Turing Award (1994)^{[8]}

·
William F. Friedman, cryptologist^{[9]}

·
Herbert
Gelernter, artificial intelligence; father of Unabomber victim David
Gelernter^{[10]}

·
Shafi
Goldwasser, Israeli-American cryptographer, Turing Award (2013)^{[13][14]}

·
Philip
Greenspun, web applications^{[15]}

·
Martin
Hellman, public key cryptography, co-inventor of the Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol,
Turing Award (2015)^{[17][18]}

·
Douglas Hofstadter, author of Gödel, Escher, Bach and other publications
(half Jewish).^{[19]}

·
Bob Kahn,
co-invented TCP and IP, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Turing
Award (2004)^{[20][21]}

·
Richard M.
Karp, computational complexity, Turing Award (1985)^{[22][23]}

·
John Kemeny,
Hungarian-born co-developer of BASIC^{[24]}

·
Leonard
Kleinrock, packet switching^{[25]}

·
Solomon
Kullback, cryptographer^{[26]}

·
Ray Kurzweil, OCR, speech recognition^{[27]}

·
Jaron Lanier,
virtual reality pioneer^{[28]}Please insert your text here.