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William F. Friedman

During the 1920s, several new cipher machines were developed generally based on using typewriter mechanics and basic electrical circuitry. An early example was the Hebern Rotor Machine, designed in the US in 1915 by Edward Hebern.

Friedman realized that the new rotor machines would be important, and devoted some time to analyzing Hebern's design. Over a period of years, he developed principles of analysis and discovered several problems common to most rotor-machine designs

Friedman used his understanding of rotor machines to develop several that were immune to his own attacks. The best of the lot was the SIGABA—which was destined to become the US's highest-security cipher machine in World War II after improvements by Frank Rowlett(g) and Laurance Safford.

In 1939, the Japanese introduced a new cipher machine for their most sensitive diplomatic traffic, called "PURPLE", was different and much more difficult. After several months trying to discover underlying patterns in PURPLE ciphertexts, an SIS team led by Friedman and Rowlett, in an extraordinary achievement, figured it out.

Thus, by the end of 1940, SIS had constructed an exact analog of the PURPLE machine without ever having seen one. With the duplicate machines and an understanding of PURPLE, SIS could decrypt increasing amounts of Japanese traffic. One such intercept was the message to the Japanese Embassy in Washington, D.C., ordering an end (on December 7, 1941) to negotiations with the US. The message gave a clear indication of impending war, and was to have been delivered to the US State Department only hours prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor.

John Adam Presper "PresEckert Jr (g) with John Mauchly (g) designed the first general-purpose electronic digital computer (ENIAC) in 1945

Herman Heine Goldstine was a mathematician

 and computer scientist, who was one of the original developers of ENIAC, the first of the modern electronic digital computers.

INTEL Andrew S Grove co-founder of the microprocessor found in most personal computers

Stanley Mazor is an American microelectronics engineer who was one of the co-inventors of the world's first microprocessor architecture, the Intel 4004, together with Ted HoffMasatoshi Shima(g), and Federico Faggin(g)

In 1969, he joined the year-old Intel Corporation, and was soon assigned to work with Ted Hoff on a project to help define the architecture of a microprocessor—often dubbed a "computer-on-a-chip"—based on a concept developed earlier by Hoff. The Japanese calculator manufacturer Busicom asked Intel to complete the design and manufacture of a new set of chips. Credited along with Faggin, Hoff, and Masatoshi Shima of Busicom as co-inventor, Mazor helped define the architecture and the instruction set for the revolutionary new chip, dubbed the Intel 4004.

Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, produced the world's first working, electronic stored-program electronic computer in 1948. The design of Colossus, the first all-electronic Digital Programmable computer by Max Newman. Although Colossus was not a general purpose computer and had only limited programmability,it represented an important milestone. 

Newman, a Cambridge University professor of mathematics, headed the "Newmanry," a special code-breaking unit at Bletchley Park in England during World War II.  Colossus was designed and built to break the German Lorenz cipher, which was used by the Nazi high command to encrypt its highest priority communications. 

The Colossus machines (which were physically constructed by a team working under the electrical engineer Tommy Flowers (g)) played a critical role in securing Allied victory in Europe and were influential in the post-war development of computers in England.  (Contrary to what is sometimes claimed, Alan Turing+, who was Newman's protégé, had relatively little direct involvement with Colossus, although his ideas were extremely influential.  Newman later declined to become "Sir Max Newman" in protest against the treatment accorded Turing+ by the postwar British government.)


Jan Aleksander Rajchman 

He joined RCA Laboratory directed by Vladimir K. Zworykin in January 1936. He was a prolific inventor with 107 US patents among others logic circuits for arithmetic. He conceived the first read-only memory, which was widely used in early computers. He conceived and developed the selectively addressable storage tube, the ill-fated Selectron tube, and the core memory


The technology that underpins the emerging post-industrial "information age" is based on semiconductor microelectronics and photonics.  The theoretical basis of the former is the band theory of solids, which was largely developed by Felix Bloch and Sir Rudolf Peierls in the late 1920s.2  The theoretical foundation of the latter is, in addition to the band theory of solids, the quantum theory of radiation, developed by Albert Einstein in 1917.  The transistor was invented and patented in the 1920s by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld.  [Its re-invention some twenty years later earned Bell Telephone Laboratories the Nobel Prize, but Bell Labs was forced to abandon all patent claims to the field-effect transistor (which today dominates modern electronics) because of Lilienfeld's prior work.]  The first working laser was demonstrated in 1960 by Theodore Maiman, based on a theoretical design concept proposed by Charles Townes (non-Jewish) and Arthur Schawlow*.  Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the physical process underlying the invention of MRI diagnostic imaging, was discovered in molecular beam studies by I. I. Rabi in 1938 and later extended to bulk matter spectroscopy by Edward Purcell (non-Jewish) and Felix Bloch.  The atomic clock, an essential component in such systems as GPS, was proposed by Rabi in 1944 and first demonstrated by Harold Lyons in 1949.


The invention of parallel supercomputing architectures by Stephen Unger, Daniel Slotnick, David Schaefer, and Włodzimierz Holsztyński.  Unger, Slotnick, Schaefer, and Holsztyński are four of the "eight men [who] dominate the history of SIMD computer architectures." 6  SIMD (single instruction, multiple data) refers to the basic parallel processing technique employed in the earliest supercomputers.7  Unger was the first to propose and explore such architectures in the late 1950s.  Slotnick designed SOLOMON in the early 1960s and built the first parallel processing prototypes.  He was later the architect of Illiac IV, the first important parallel supercomputer, which had up to 256 processing elements.  Built with 64 processing elements in the early 1970s with ARPA (now DARPA) funding and operated by NASA, Illiac IV remained the world's fastest computer until its shutdown in 1981.  In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Schaefer initiated and managed the development of NASA's Massively Parallel Processor (MPP), the first truly massively parallel supercomputer, with 16,384 processing elements.  Holsztyński designed the Geometric-Arithmetic Parallel Processor (GAPP) in 1981.  GAPPs with hundreds of thousands of processing elements are used today in real-time video image processing applications such as image enhancement and noise reduction, video data compression, and format and frame rate conversion.


Printed Circuit Board

Paul Eisler was an Austrian inventor born in Vienna. Among his innovations were the printed circuit board

Lee Felsenstein a computer engineer who played a central role in the development of the personal computer. He was one of the original members of the Homebrew Computer Club and the designer of the Osborne 1, the first mass-produced portable computer.

Before the Osborne, he designed the Intel 8080 based "SOL" computer from Processor Technology, the Penny Whistle modem, and other early "S-100 bus" era designs. His shared-memory alphanumeric video display design, the Processor Technology VDM-1 video display module board, was widely copied and became the basis for the standard display architecture of personal computers.


Ralph Benjamin Computer Mouse

Benjamin invented the first trackball called roller ball in 1946 patented in 1947. It became the mouse invented by Douglas Englebart (g) in 1968.

Between 1947 and 1957 Benjamin developed the first force-wide integrated Command and Control System. This included patenting the use of an interlaced cursor controlled by a tracker ball to link displays to stored digital information, the first ever digital compression of video data, and the creation of the navy's first digital data link and network which is still in use NATO-wide as "Link 11".

USB Flash Drive

Flash memory was invented by Fujio Masuoka (g) in the early 1980s.

Amir BanDov Moran, and Oron Ogdan of M-Systems, an Israeli company, obtained a patent entitled "Architecture for a Universal Serial Bus-Based PC Flash Disk".


Stanford Robert was an engineer, scientist and inventor who over a span of fifty years was granted well over 400 patents, mostly in the areas of energy and information. Many of his inventions have had wide-ranging applications. Among the most prominent are: the nickel-metal hydride battery, which has been widely used in laptop computersdigital camerascell phones, and electric and hybrid cars; flexible thin-film solar energy laminates and panels; flat screen liquid crystal displays; rewritable CD and DVD discs hydrogen fuel cells; and nonvolatile phase-change memory.


Samuel M. Genensky computer scientist, best known as an inventor for devices to assist sight-impaired persons. He was also well known for his advocacy on behalf of the blind.

CELL PHONE invented by Motorola at its laboratory in Israel

CELL PHONE CAMERA  invented by Phillippe Kahn

Michael Saul Dell is the founder, chairman and CEO of Dell Technologies, one of the world's largest technology infrastructure companies.




The Instruction set for ENIAC, (the programming language) for the first general-purpose electronic computer was created by John Von Neumann

Adele Goldstine (née Katz) was an American mathematician and computer programmer. She wrote the manual for the first electronic digital computer, ENIAC. Through her work programming the computer, she was also an instrumental player in converting the ENIAC from a computer that needed to be reprogrammed each time it was used to one that was able to perform a set of fifty stored instructions.

Marlyn Wescoff Meltzer was one of the six original programmers of ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer.

Ruth Teitelbaum (née Lichterman was one of the original programmers for the ENIAC computer and one of the first computer programmers in the world.

Heinz Joseph Gerber , Joseph Gerber pioneered the marriage between computation and manufacturing, transforming so many industries that it is difficult to imagine what the world would look like without him."—Shirley Ann Jackson, President, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.”  He was one of the first to recognize and develop the productivity-enhancing potential for computer automation in skill-intensive industrial sectors.


He invented the Gerber Variable Scale, a graphical-numerical computing device which became known as the greatest engineering tool since the slide rule


Gerber also introduced the first digital plotter, initially used for precisely plotting enemy battleship positions on maps, the first digital motion-controlled machine to create graphicsNASA's Johnson Space Center later relied on Gerber's plotters for communications analysis and graphical data display for the first lunar landing,


In the early 1960s, Gerber introduced the first automated machines for drafting. Gerber's automated drafting technologies enabled the design of complex design products, such as the first "jumbo" military and commercial aircraft, the U.S. Air Force C-5 Transport by Lockheed Martin and the Boeing 747. This technology was credited with integrating the engineering design function with the numerically controlled machine tools in the aircraftautomotive, and shipbuilding industries, dramatically improving cost and manufacture time. Gerber's automated systems would capture three quarters of the automated drafting system market during the following two decades.


Gerber also invented and introduced a novel form of plotter that used a controlled beam of light instead of an ink-pen, to draw digital graphics directly on photographic film. The world's most accurate printing technology, the "photoplotter" reduced the cost and time of fabricating circuit boards and enabled production of more sophisticated, miniaturized, and multi-layered printed circuit boards and integrated circuits. The photoplotter "revolutionized the production of printed circuit board artwork." Ultimately, the company would provide a suite of numerically controlled and computer-based tools for design through inspection of circuit boards. Gerber's computerized manufacturing process played a leading role in the consumer electronics revolution, from pocket radios to computers. The photoplotter was also used to manufacture over 75% of the CRT color television screens and the masters for the original Universal Product Code (UPC) barcodes.

In the late 1960s, American apparel manufacturing was labor-intensive, completely without automation, and rapidly leaving the country for cheap foreign labor. Gerber developed a numerically controlled machine (the GERBER cutter S-70) for cutting large quantities of tall stacks of cloth accurately—3,500 pieces for 50 men's suits in less than three minutes. The GERBERcutter has been widely cited as the most important technological advance of the century, because it offered apparel factories significant savings in wasted cloth, which was the greatest cost factor in producing a garment, and because it enabled a computer-automated manufacturing system.


Within two years, Gerber introduced the first numerically controlled machines for sewing (the GSM-70) and producing pattern layouts, known as "markers" (the MP-26). Ultimately, his company would develop computer-controlled systems for the designingdigitizinggrading, and prototyping of apparel patterns, and an integrated system that included fabric spreaders, parts-moving systems, concept design, and product data management. As this system slowed the departure of the U.S. apparel manufacturing industry by more than a generation, leaders in the industry from manufacturing, labor, and other quarters hailed Gerber as its "father of apparel automation" and "the savior of the [American apparel] industry.

Ralph Henry Baer (born Rudolf Heinrich Baer)is considered to have been the inventor of video games, specifically of the concept of the home video game console


Noam Chomsky

The invention of context-free languages by Noam Chomsky.  This work was based on Emil Post's theory of production systems in mathematical logic.  It is the basis of the BNF notation widely used to specify the syntax rules of programming languages.  Chomsky's hierarchical classification of formal languages initiated the field of formal language theory in computer science.

Data Compression

The invention of the LZ data compression algorithm by Jacob Ziv and Abraham Lempel.  Although LZ coding was not the first data compression technique invented, it is today the most widely used in commercial systems.  It underpins PDF, GIF, TIFF, ZIP, and other widely used file formats.



Abraham Lempel is an Israeli computer scientist and one of the fathers of the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithms.

Jacob Ziv - Israeli computer scientist who, along with Abraham Lempel, developed the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithms






Paul Baran, born Pesach Baran was a Polish-American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks. He was one of the two independent inventors of packet switching, which is today the dominant basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide, and went on to start several companies and develop other technologies that are an essential part of modern digital communication.





Computer Virus

Frederick B. Cohen is best known for his pioneering work on computer viruses, and best known as the inventor of computer virus defense techniques in widespread use.

In 1983, while at USC, he wrote a program for a parasitic application that seized control of computer operations, one of the first computer viruses, He wrote a short program, as an experiment, that could "infect" computers, make copies of itself, and spread from one machine to another. It was hidden inside a larger, legitimate program, which was loaded into a computer on a floppy disk.

One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Cohen's 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses.



Artificial Intelligence


Artificial Intelligence term coined by John McCarthy

The interpretation of thermodynamic entropy as an information metric by Leo Szilard.  Szilard's 1929 analysis of the Maxwell's demon paradox "is now considered to be the earliest known paper in what became the field of 'information theory' in the 1950s and 1960s." 1  Other important information metrics were formulated by John von Neumann, Solomon Kullback, and Alfréd Rényi.  The von Neumann entropy, e.g., is the quantum generalization of Szilard's classical information measure and is one of the fundamental concepts in quantum information theory.

The co-founding of the field of artificial intelligence by Marvin Minsky, Herbert Simon*, and John McCarthy*.  (Allen Newell(g) is considered to have been the other one of its  four founders.)

Alexander Y. Tetelbaum  is pioneer in the Electronic Design Automation (EDA) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) industries since the 1960s. He holds more than 40 US patents and is the author and co-author of 250 publications, including 13 books.

Kenneth Yigael Goldberg is an American artist, writer, inventor, and researcher in the field of robotics and automation.  He received his Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University in 1990 While studying abroad in Edinburgh, Goldberg took a course on artificial intelligence that began his interest in robotics and their artistic potential.

In his PhD dissertation, Goldberg developed the first algorithm for orienting (feeding) polygonal parts and proved that the algorithm can be used to orient any part up to rotational symmetry.[12] He also patented the kinematically yielding gripper, a new robot gripper that complies passively to hold parts securely without sensing. His research has resulted in eight United States patents



Programming Languages


David Karel is best known for his work on dynamic logiccomputabilitydatabase theory, software engineering and modelling biological systems. In the 1980s he invented the graphical language of Statecharts for specifying and programming reactive systems, which has been adopted as part of the UML standard. Since the late 1990s he has concentrated on a scenario-based approach to programming such systems, launched by his co-invention (with W. Damm) of Live Sequence Charts.




Mordechai Meirovitz was an Israeli telecommunications expert. Meirovitz invented the code-breaking board game Master Mind. After being rejected by leading games companies, he sparked the interest of a Leicester-based company, Invicta Plastics, which restyled and renamed the game. Released in 1971, the game sold over 50 million sets in 80 countries, making it the most successful new game of the 1970s


Philippe Kahn  


Philippe Kahn  is an engineer, entrepreneur and founder of four technology companies:

 BorlandStarfish SoftwareLightSurf Technologies, and Fullpower Technologies. Kahn is credited with creating the first camera phone, being a pioneer for wearable technology intellectual property, and is the author of dozens of technology patents covering Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI) modeling, wearable, eyewear, smartphone, mobile, imaging, wireless, synchronization and medical technologies.


As a student, Kahn developed software for the MICRAL, which is credited by the Computer History Museum as the first ever microprocessor-based personal computer.

In 1997, Kahn created the first camera phone solution sharing pictures instantly on public networks. The impetus for this invention was the birth of his daughter. He had been working for almost a year on a web server-based infrastructure for pictures, that he called Picture Mail. At the hospital, while his wife was in labor, Kahn jury-rigged a connection between a mobile phone and a digital camera and sent off photos in real time to the picture messaging infrastructure he had running in his home.Kahn later said "I had always wanted to have this all working in time to share my daughter’s birth photo, but I wasn’t sure I was going to make it. It’s always the case that if it weren’t for the last minute, nothing would ever get done."



Jacob Ziv - Israeli computer scientist who, along with Abraham Lempel, developed the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithms.






Eli Biham is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst, who invented (publicly) differential cryptanalysis, That same technology had been invented at least twice before. A team at IBM discovered it during their work on DES, and was requested/required to keep their discovery secret by the NSA, who evidently knew about it as well.


Daniel Boneh - is one of the principal contributors to the development of pairing-based cryptography from the Weil Pairing, along with Matt Franklin(g) of the University of California, Davis. They are particularly known for the Boneh–Franklin scheme, a cryptography scheme that uses the mathematics of elliptic curves to automatically generate public and private key pairs based on the identities of the communicating parties. In 2013, he and Boneh were winners of the Gödel Prize for their work on this system.


Martin Hellman

The co-invention of public-key cryptography by Martin Hellman.  Hellman and Whitfield Diffie(g) devised the Diffie-Hellman algorithm for secure key distribution over nonsecure channels.


The co-invention of RSA by Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman.  RSA (which is named for its three co-inventors, Shamir, Adleman, and Ronald Rivest (g)) is the most widely used public-key algorithm.


The co-invention of elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) by Neal Koblitz and Victor S. Miller (independently).  Based on concepts rooted in algebraic geometry, ECC is widely deployed as the leading successor to RSA.  Relative to RSA, it provides greater strength with much smaller cryptovariables.  (It does, however, share the same potential vulnerability to quantum computational attack.) 

Quantum Cryptogtaphy

The invention of quantum cryptography by Stephen Wiesner.  Although quantum key distribution was invented in the mid-1980s by others, it was specifically acknowledged to have been inspired by Wiesner's circa 1970 work that established the basic principles underlying the use of quantum mechanics to achieve information security.

William Friedman

The development of mathematical and statistical cryptanalysis by William Friedman.  Friedman's innovations are ranked amongst the greatest in the history of cryptology; he supervised the breaking of the Japanese diplomatic code PURPLE in 1940 and directed US cryptanalysis during World War II.  Other important World War II cryptologists included Solomon Kullback, Leo Rosen, and Abraham Sinkov in the US and Max Newman*, I.J. Good, and Leo Marks in England.  Newman and Good were instrumental in the design of Colossus, which was used to break the Lorenz cipher employed by the German high command.  Marks, the chief cryptologist of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) of MI6, revolutionized the one-time pad.

Michael Rabin

The invention of nondeterministic algorithms by Michael Rabin.  Such algorithms employ Monte Carlo methods to provide efficiently computable solutions that are correct with high (but less than one hundred percent) probability to many problems whose exact solution is computationally intractable.  Rabin's probabilistic primality testing, e.g., is essential to the practical implementation of RSA public-key cryptography.


Wiener Filter 

The invention of the Wiener filter by Norbert Wiener.  The Wiener filter is an optimal filter for extracting signals from noise in stationary stochastic systems and is one of the central results in statistical communication theory, a field pioneered by Wiener.  (A version of the Wiener filter was also formulated independently by Andrei Kolmogorov(g).)  The nonlinear, recursive Wiener filter, its extension to nonstationary systems for use in tracking and guidance was first formulated by Peter Swerling in 1959.10  Wiener and Alexander Khinchine independently derived the Wiener-Khinchine theorem, another central result in statistical communication theory.


The co-invention of BASIC by John Kemeny.  Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz(g)

developed this popular programming language. .  Also at IBM, Adin Falkoff collaborated with Kenneth Iverson(g) on the design and development of the array processing language APL.  Ada, an advanced programming language adopted by the US Department of Defense as its standard high-level computer language in the 1980s and 1990s, was designed by Jean Ichbiah.  LISP, the second-oldest high-level programming language still in use (primarily in artificial intelligence research), was invented by John McCarthy* in 1958.  Barbara Liskov was awarded the 2008 ACM Turing Award for fundamental advances in programming language design.  The ACM press release noted that her innovations "are now the basis of every important programming language since 1975, including Ada, C++, Java, and C#."

The invention of convolutional codes by Peter Elias.  Important decoding algorithms for these error correction codes were invented by Barney Reiffen, Robert Fano, and Andrew Viterbi.

The co-invention of the Reed-Solomon error correction code by Gustave Solomon.  Reed-Solomon and Viterbi- or Fano-decoded convolutional codes, or hybrid concatenations of the two, are probably the most widely used error correction techniques at present.

The invention of statistical decision theory by Abraham Wald.  Among other applications, statistical decision theory plays an important role in radar, control, and  communication.  Its minimax decision rules derive from John von Neumann's theory of optimal strategies (theory of games).

The invention of dynamic programming by Richard Ernest Bellman.  This procedure solves sequential, or multi-stage, decision problems and is one of the foundations of modern control theory.  It also constitutes the basis for many powerful algorithms, including the Viterbi algorithm, invented by Andrew Viterbi, that is used to decode convolutional codes employed in error correction and in CDMA and GSM digital cellular telephony.

Michael Oser Rabin is an Israeli mathematician and

computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award. Rabin researched logic, and worked on other purely mathematical problems which became the foundation of what would later be known as computer science


MONTE CARLO TECHNIQUE created by Stanisław Marcin Ulam  The invention of the Monte Carlo method by Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann.  This statistical numerical method is one of the cornerstones of computer simulation science.  Von Neumann invented the first computer-based random number generator for use in Monte Carlo simulations.


The company sells its own database software and technology. Lawrence Joseph Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner(g) and Ed Oates(g) under the name Software Development Laboratories (SDL) Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd(g) on relational database management systems (RDBMS) named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks."[10] 

Larry Tesslercreated the Cut & Paste feature now common on computers.


PACKET SWITCHING Leonard Kleinrock created the mathematical basis for packet switching which is the basis for the operation of the Internet.

The invention of Alohanet (precursor to Ethernet) by Norman Abramson.  Alohanet was a packet-switched research network that solved the major problem of packet interference, or "packet collision."  Alohanet was further developed by Robert Metcalfe+ into Ethernet (which Metcalfe+ originally called the Alto Aloha network), the standard method used in local area computer networking.  Radia Perlman's spanning tree protocol, which solved the problem of broadcast storms due to network switching loops, was the critical enabler that allowed Ethernet to realize high levels of robust network complexity.

The Internet

Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran, Vinton Cerf, and Robert Kahn. together with Donald Davies(g) and Lawrence Roberts(g) are the six individuals most frequently cited as principal inventors of the Internet.  Kleinrock, Cerf, Kahn, and Roberts(g) were awarded the US National Academy of Engineering's half-million dollar Draper Prize in 2001 for the development of the Internet

Baran, Kleinrock, Davies(g), and Roberts(g) received the first IEEE Internet Award in 2000 for "their early, preeminent contributions in conceiving, analyzing and demonstrating packet-switching networks, the foundation technology of the Internet."  Cerf, Kahn, and Baran received US National Medals of Technology, the former two in 1997 and the latter in 2007.  Kleinrock was awarded the US National Medal of Science in 2007.  Cerf and Kahn co-invented the TCP/IP protocol for integration of heterogeneous networks, which is the basis of the Internet's "inter-networking" architecture.  They shared the 2004 ACM Turing Award for this work, and in 2005 each received the US Presidential Medal of Freedom.

The Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was developed in the 1970s and became the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET, incorporating concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin. The Internet is a worldwide collection of hardware systems which communicate with each other using that protocol.

The Internet allows one computer to “talk” to another computer if they both use the Internet Protocol.

By contrast, the World Wide Web allows one person to “talk” to another person via the Internet. The World Wide Web  was created by Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee(g)

The co-invention of spread spectrum communications by Hedy Lamarr.  Lamarr (the Hollywood actress) and George Antheil(g) (a Hollywood composer) received US Patent No. 2,292,387, "Secret Communication System," in 1942 for the invention of frequency-hopped spread spectrum.  The digital form of spread spectrum that is widely used in cellular communications (CDMA) was developed by Qualcomm, a company founded by the information theorists Irwin Jacobs and Andrew Viterbi.  Jacobs received the US National Medal of Technology in 1994 and Viterbi received the US National Medal of Science in 2007.  Both were recognized for their pioneering innovations in digital wireless communications.  Joel Engel also received the Medal of Technology in 1994 as one of the two "fathers of the cellular phone" for his work on the development of the basic network architecture used worldwide in cellular telephony.


The Operating system makes a computer available for software to operate.

John von Neuman created the concept of storing the program and data inside the computer is the basis for all modern computers

The design of the logical architecture employed in virtually all modern computers by John von Neumann.  The von Neumann architecture was incorporated into the design of EDVAC, the first all-electronic, binary, stored-program, general purpose computer.4  Von Neumann's 1946 paper "Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument" has been described as "the most influential paper in the history of computer science ... the ideas it contains, collectively known as the von Neumann machine, have provided the foundation for essentially all computer system developments since that date." 5  Von Neumann also invented the theory of system fault tolerance and the cellular automata  model of computation.  The universal von Neumann constructor, a generalization of the universal Turing machine that emerged out of von Neumann's theory of self-reproducing automata, is one of the foundational concepts in the field of molecular nanotechnology.


The invention of the MINIX operating system by Andrew Tanenbaum.  MINIX was the precursor to, and inspiration for, the widely used Linux operating system.

Linux is a family of open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, which is an operating system kernel first released on September17,1991, by Linus Torvalds(g).


Bloomberg L.P., is a financial information, software and media firm that is known for its Bloomberg Terminal. Bloomberg spent the next twenty years as its chairman and CEO.

Converting Text to Speech   Ray Kurzweil

FACEBOOK Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo P Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz  3 of 4 cofounders

GOOGLE        Larry Page, Sergey Mikhaylovich Brin co founders

The invention of Google by Sergey Brin and Larry Page.  The algorithm employed by Google, the most powerful and widely used search engine on the Internet, employs an adaptation of the citation frequency "impact factor" metric originally invented in the 1950s by Eugene Garfield to rank the relative influence of scientific researchers, articles, and journals.

INSTAGRAM  Kevin Systrom, Mike Krieger co founders

MICROSOLUTIONS (Compuserve) Mark Cuban founder

MYSPACE   Richard Rosenblatt founder

PDA Personal Digital Assistant Donna Dubinsky CEO & co-developer


PAYPAL Max Rafael Levchin  co founder

SALESFORCE founder  Mark Russell Benioff



The invention of the computer spreadsheet by Dan Bricklin and Robert Frankston.  Bricklin and Frankston's VisiCalc spreadsheet was the first "killer app."  The Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet program, the most successful software product of its time, was developed by Jonathan Sachs and Mitchell Kapor.


TRIPADVISOR cofounded by Langley Steinert and Stephen Kaufer


WINDOWS XP operating system created in Israel

COMPUTER LEASING created by Saul Steinberg LEASCO

The invention of cryptocurrency by David Chaum.  In his seminal 1982 paper, Chaum established the concept of secure digital cash, the first cryptocurrency.  Chaum's invention anticipated by several decades the now widespread recognition of the issue of electronic privacy in financial and other transactions.


The co-invention of blockchain by Stuart Haber.  In 1991, Haber and W. Scott Stornetta(g) introduced this concept for a shared, tamper-proof, decentralized transaction ledger.  Blockchain is widely claimed to have the potential to revolutionize e-commerce (and more) by greatly increasing the efficiency, confidentiality, and trust with which online transactions are conducted and recorded. 

The introduction of the diagonal argument proof method by Georg Cantor*.  This method is central to the derivation of the incompleteness and noncomputability results of Gödel+, Turing+, Church+, and Post that lie at the foundation of theoretical computer science.  In a 1936 paper, Emil Post described a mechanical definition of computation, known as the Post machine, which is equivalent to the Turing machine introduced by Alan Turing+ in a paper that appeared several months later.  Post had understood the undecidability implications of such a definition as early as 1921, but had hesitated to publish and lost priority to Gödel+, who approached the problem from a very different perspective in his 1931 paper.  Post was also one of the four principal founders of the theory of recursive functions, which is of immense importance in theoretical computer science.2

The co-discovery of NP-completeness by Leonid Levin.  Levin  and Stephen Cook+ independently discovered and proved what is now referred to as the Cook-Levin theorem, the central result concerning the P = NP? question, which is the major open problem in theoretical computer science.  Richard Karp introduced the terms "P" and "NP" and defined NP-completeness (although not the term itself) in its present form.  He also identified the decision problem formulations of many well-known, combinatorially intractable problems as being NP-complete.  Levin, Karp, and Manuel Blum are considered to be three of the six founders of the field of computational complexity theory.

The development of computer algebra (symbol manipulation) programs by Jean Sammet (FORMAC), Carl Engelman (MATHLAB), Joel Moses (MACSYMA), and Stephen Wolfram (Mathematica).

The invention of reversible computation theory by Rolf Landauer.  Reversible computation circumvents the thermodynamic limits on irreversible computation established by John von Neumann, and is one of the foundations of quantum computing.  The ballistic architecture, or Fredkin gate, model of reversible computation was introduced by Edward Fredkin.

The invention of quantum computing by Paul Benioff, Richard Feynman, and David Deutsch.

The invention of DNA computing by Leonard Adleman.

The invention of fuzzy logic by Max Black and Lotfi Zadeh* (independently).

The invention of algorithmic complexity by Ray Solomonoff.  Also termed Kolmogorov complexity or algorithmic information theory, Solomonoff's 1964 work was later arrived at independently by Andrei Kolmogorov+ (1965) and Gregory Chaitin (1969).

The invention of the SIMPLEX linear programming algorithm by George B. Dantzig.   Linear programming (LP), invented independently by Dantzig and Leonid Kantorovich, is a powerful optimization technique that is widely used in economics and engineering.  It has been estimated that, aside from database operations such as sorting and searching, LP consumes more computer time than any other mathematical procedure.9  The SIMPLEX algorithm remains LP's fundamental numerical solution technique.

The invention of the ellipsoid method of convex optimization by Naum Shor and, independently, by Arkadi Nemirovski and David Yudin.  This technique, which was successfully employed by Leonid Khachiyan+ to prove the polynomial-time complexity of linear programming, underlies most modern results concerning the computational complexity of convex optimization programs.  The ellipsoid method provided the first effective solver for semidefinite programs (which are encountered in many engineering applications) and has led to significant advances in combinatorial optimization.

The invention or co-invention of four of CiSE's "Top Ten Algorithms of the Century" by Stanislaw Ulam, John von Neumann, George Dantzig, Cornelius Lanczos, Leslie Greengard, and Vladimir Rokhlin.   The January/February 2000 issue of Computing in Science & Engineering, a joint publication of the American Institute of Physics and the IEEE Computer Society, assembled a list of "the ten algorithms with the greatest influence on the development and practice of science and engineering in the 20th century."  In addition to the Monte Carlo method and the SIMPLEX algorithm discussed above, the top ten algorithms included the Krylov subspace iteration method for the solution of large systems of linear equations (Lanczos) and the fast multipole algorithm for the solution of many-body problems (Greengard and Rokhlin).


Programming Languages

FORTRANwas the first macro computer Programming language. At least one-third of the nine-person team that developed FORTRAN under John Backus(g) at IBM were Jewish.  Richard Goldberg, and Irving Ziller part that IBM team.

LISP the second oldest computer programming language developed by John McCarthy

BASIC programming language John George Kemeny  Co-creator


Turing Award Winners

Alan Mathison Turing(g) was an English

mathematiciancomputer scientist, logiciancryptanalystphilosopher, and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.

During the Second World War, Turing was a leading participant in the breaking of German ciphers at Bletchley Park.

Turing was prosecuted in 1952 for homosexual acts, and apparently committed suicide.

·         Leonard AdlemanRSA cryptography, DNA computingTuring Award (2002)[2]

·         Adi ShamirRSA cryptography, DNA computingTuring Award (2002)[2]

·         Lenore and Manuel Blum (Turing Award (1995)), Venezuelan-American computer scientists, computational complexity; parents of Avrim Blum (Co-training)[4]

·         Robert Fano, Italian-American information theorist[7]

·         Ed Feigenbaum, artificial intelligence, Turing Award (1994)[8]

·         William F. Friedman, cryptologist[9]

·         Herbert Gelernter, artificial intelligence; father of Unabomber victim David Gelernter[10]

·         Shafi Goldwasser, Israeli-American cryptographer, Turing Award (2013)[13][14]

·         Philip Greenspun, web applications[15]

·         Martin Hellman, public key cryptography, co-inventor of the Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol, Turing Award (2015)[17][18]

·         Douglas Hofstadter, author of Gödel, Escher, Bach and other publications (half Jewish).[19]

·         Bob Kahn, co-invented TCP and IPPresidential Medal of Freedom, Turing Award (2004)[20][21]

·         Richard M. Karp, computational complexity, Turing Award (1985)[22][23]

·         John Kemeny, Hungarian-born co-developer of BASIC[24]

·         Leonard Kleinrockpacket switching[25]

·         Solomon Kullback, cryptographer[26]

·         Ray KurzweilOCR, speech recognition[27]

·         Jaron Lanier, virtual reality pioneer[28]Please insert your text here.