A WebsiteBuilder Website

Revolutionary War

War 0f 1812

Civil War

Army Generals and Navy Admirals

Other Jewish Veterans

The Ritchie Boys

Jewish Medal of Honor awardees



Revolutionary War


Col. David Salisbury Franks was aide-de-camp to General Benedict Arnold at Philadelphia in 1779; Solomon Bush was major of the Pennsylvania militia; Col. Isaac Franks served with distinction in the war, as did Philip Moses, Russell and Benjamin Nones. 

Isaac Franks Lt Colonel fought in the battle of Long Island, and was host to George Washington in Germantown Philadelphia in order to avoid a Yellow Fever epidemic in Philadelphia.

Solomon Bush, Lt Colonel, soldier and signer of the non-importation agreement of October 1765. Was severely wounded when the British seized Philadelphia.


Francis Salvador of South Carolina killed by the Cherokee who were incited by The British.


Mordechai Sheftall of Georgia captured by the British when they took Savannah


WAR of 1812


Jean Lafitte, the pirate and about 200 of his men fought along side General Jackson’s troops to fend off the British in the Battle of New Orleans. The British fleet was prevented from sailing up the Misssissippi by an artillery crew manned by two of Lafitte's lieutenants, Renato Beluche(g) and Dominique Youx (g). Andrew Jackson praised Lafitte and his men for their service and granted all of them a full pardon for their involvement in piracy.


Judah Touro, civilian volunteer in the American Army; philanthropist 




Union Army

In his book, The American Jew as Patriot, Soldier and Citizen, Simon Wolf listed more than 6000 Jews who fought for the Union, and more than 1000 who fought for the Confederacy

Union Army

General Frederick Salomon

General William Meyer

Brigadier General Edward Solomon

Brigadier General Leopold Blumenberg wounded Antietam

Brigadier General Philip J. Joachimsen

Brigadier General Max Einstein

Major General Frederick Knefler

Colonel Marcus M. Spiegel, and patriarch of the Spiegel family. (Spiegel Catalog) son of a  Rabbi


Colonel Max Friedman Cameron’s Dragoons

Lieutenant Albert Luria died in Battle of Seven Pines

Lieutenant Leopold Newman wounded Chancelorsville


J.A. Joel

Max Frauenthal



Lieut Col.   Alexander Semyon Vindman is a retired United States Army  Lt Colonel


§  Lieut. Gen. H. Steven Blum[1]

§  Lieut. Gen. Sidney T. Weinstein[2]

§  Maj. Gen. Julius Ochs Adler[3]

§  Maj. Gen. Lee Barkin[4]

§  Maj. Gen. Robert Bernstein[5]

§  Maj. Gen. Milton Foreman[6]

§  Maj. Gen. Stanley H. Hyman[7]

§  Maj. Gen. William P. Levine [8]

§  Maj. Gen. Julius Klein

§  Maj. Gen. Samuel T. Lawton

§  Maj. Gen. Irving J. Phillipson

§  Maj. Gen. Maurice Rose

§  Maj. Gen. Roger Sandler

§  Maj. Gen. Sidney Shachnow

§  Maj. Gen. Robert B. Solomon

§  Brig. Gen. Jack Bohm

§  Brig. Gen. Abel Davis

§  Brig. Gen. Israel Drazin

§  Brig. Gen. Herman Feldman

§  Brig. Gen. William M. Goodman

§  Brig. Gen. Edward S. Greenbaum

§  Brig. Gen. Sidney Gritz

§  Brig. Gen. Maurice Hirsch

§  Brig. Gen. Raymond Jacobson

§  Brig. Gen. Ephraim F. Jeffe

§  Brig. Gen. Myron S. Lewis

§  Brig. Gen. George Luberoff

§  Brig. Gen. William Meyer

§  Brig. Gen. Alfred Mordechai, Jr

§  Brig. Gen. Edward M. Morris

§  Brig. Gen. Leopold C. Newman

§  Brig. Gen. Fred Rosenbaum

§  Brig. Gen. David Sarnoff

§  Brig. Gen. Philip Sherman

§  Brig. Gen. Joseph R. Smith

§  Brig. Gen. David Zalis

§  Bvt. Gen. Leopold Blumenberg

§  Bvt. Brig. Gen. Frederick Knefler

§  Bvt. Brig Gen. Edward S. Salomon

§  Bvt. Maj. Gen. Frederick C. Salomon





§Admiral Jeremy Boorda

§Captain John Ordronaux as captain of the Prince de Neufchatel captured 9 British ships during the American Revolution.

§  Commodore Uriah Phillips Levy was a naval officer, real estate investor, and philanthropist. He was a veteran of the War of 1812 and the first Jewish Commodore of the United States Navy. He was instrumental in helping to end the Navy's practice of flogging, and during his half-century-long service prevailed against the antisemitism he faced among some of his fellow naval officers.

§  During his service in the U.S. Navy, Levy faced considerable antisemitism. He reacted to slights and was court-martialed six times, and once demoted from the rank of Captain. Twice, he was dismissed from the Navy, but reinstated. He defended his conduct in his handling of naval affairs before a Court of Inquiry and in 1855 was restored to his former position.

§  Later Levy commanded the Mediterranean Squadron. As a squadron commander he was given the title of commodore, then the highest position in the U.S. Navy.


§Admiral Hyman G. Rickover risked his naval career by campaigning for a Nuclear Navy.

§Rear Admiral Maurice H. Rindskopf

§Vice Admiral Joseph Taussig


§    Augusto Capon, Admiral, Chief Naval Intelligence Italy



David Hilberry Berger is a United States Marine Corps four-star general currently serving as the 38th Commandant of the United States Marine Corps.




·         Martin Dannenberg, U.S. Army intelligence officer during World War II 


·         Sergeant Sam Dreben, served in the United States Army in the Philippines, Panama Canal Zone, the Pancho Villa Expedition, and World War I, also fought in HondurasGuatemalaNicaragua, and the Mexican revolution; noted for his prowess with machine guns[3]


·         Kirk Douglas World War II {US Navy} [4]


·         David Max Eichhorn (Jan. 6, 1906–July 16, 1986), Reform Jewish rabbi, author, and chaplain in the army who was among the troops that liberated Dachau; founded Merritt Island's Temple Israel


·         Moses Jacob EzekielConfederate Army soldier[6]


·         Jeffrey S. Feinstein, colonel, flying ace of the USAF in the [[Vietnam War][


·         Hal Glassman, US Army sergeant major, active duty and USAR, Vietnam, Persian Gulf War, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo; Legion of Merit, CIB; career as civilian senior executive in Federal government on Task Forces that organized FEMA, 1978 and TSA, 2001.


·         Joshua L. Goldberg, first rabbi to serve as a navy chaplain in WWII [7]


·         Alexander D. Goode, was a rabbi and a lieutenant in the United States Army. He was one of the Four Chaplains who gave their lives to save other soldiers during the sinking of the troop transport Dorchester during World War II. [8]


·         Eric GreitensRhodes ScholarUnited States Navy SEAL; served in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars; humanitarian who founded The Mission Continues [9]


·         Jacob Hirschorn, Mexican War veteran [10]


·         Jack H. Jacobs, Medal of Honor recipient, Vietnam[11]


·         Leopold Karpeles (Civil War), sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient, Battle of the Wilderness, 1864


·         Leon Klinghoffer World War II Veteran U.S. Army Air Corps


·         Benjamin Levy (Civil War), private, Medal of Honor recipient, Battle of Glendale, 1862 [12]


·         Uriah P. Levy (War of 1812), first Jewish commodore; first Jewish American to have a full U.S. Navy career (1812-1862); hero of the War of 1812; instrumental in ending the practice of flogging; bought, repaired, restored, and preserved Monticello (Jefferson's home) (1834-1862); namesake of the Jewish Chapel at the Norfolk Naval Base and the Jewish Chapel at the United States Naval Academy


·         Robert Magnusgeneral, former assistant commandant of the Marine Corps


·         David "Mickey" Marcus (World War II), Army lieutenant colonel, West Point graduate, divisional judge advocate, division commander; attended the "Big Five" meetings; volunteered to join D-Day airborne assault without formal training; received Distinguished Service Cross, Bronze Star, and British decorations; volunteered to Israeli Army to defend against Transjordan Arab Legion; became first Israeli brigadier general; served as commander of Jerusalem front


·         Morris W. Morris, aka Lewis Morrison, first Black-Jewish commissioned officer in both the Confederate (1861) and Union (1861-1865) armies; served with the 2nd Louisiana Native Guard (Confederate) and also with the 2nd Louisiana Native Guard (U.S.) after its reorganization as a Union regiment


·         Judah Nadich, Jewish chaplain and advisor on Jewish affairs on Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower's staff [13]


·         Mark PolanskyNASAUSAF (Ret.), Space Shuttle commander


·         Arnold Resnicoff, navy chaplain, special assistant (for Values and Vision) to the Secretary and Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force (Equivalent military rank: brigadier general)


·         Jack L. Rives, lieutenant general, USAF, TJAG (The Judge Advocate General of the Air Force) [14]


·         Maurice Rosemajor general (World War II); negotiated the unconditional surrender of the Germans in Tunisia, Commanded 3rd Armored Division, the first division to cross the German border and the first to breach the Siegfried line; killed in combat


·         Max Rose, U.S. Army infantry officer, veteran of the War in Afghanistan. Recipient of the Purple Heart for injuries sustained in the detonation of an improvised explosive device.


·         Tibor Rubin (Korea), recipient of the Medal of Honor for actions in battle and in Chinese POW camp


·         Francis Salvador (American Revolution), "Paul Revere of the South"


·         George Stern (Civil War), enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps as "Charles Stein" in June 1864 in Philadelphia, promoted to sergeant and later captured by the Confederates and imprisoned in Pensacola[15]


·         Michel Thomas (World War II), awarded Silver Star for service w antry Division in 1944; CIC Agent, 1945–47


The Ritchie Boys:

America’s Jewish Secret Weapon During World War II

As the Nazi noose pulled ever tighter in Germany, many Jewish families prioritized sending their eldest sons to freedom. A few years later, some of these sons – inspired by both patriotism and the desire for revenge – embraced assignments in U.S. Army intelligence, where their knowledge of German language and culture proved invaluable.

When war broke out, the United States designated these men “enemy aliens” because of their German origins. They were barred from enlistment, and subject to discrimination after being drafted. Eventually, though, their status changed. Their language skills and cultural background made them eligible for special intelligence training, paired with the perk of a quick path to U.S. citizenship.

In late 1942, the US Army decided to create a special program to make use of recently arrived Jewish emigres’ familiarity with Germany and its language. Approximately 2,000 young Jewish men (primarily from Germany) were secretly recruited to train at Fort Ritchie in Maryland to be schooled in interrogation and counter-intelligence techniques. Most of these young men had left their families behind in Europe and were anxious to become an important part of the defeat of the Nazis.

It was the perfect revenge. They fled Nazi persecution and came to America, where they entered the U.S. Army during World War II. Because they knew the language and culture of the enemy better than anyone, they were sent to a Maryland military intelligence training center called Camp Ritchie (now Fort Ritchie) and taught to interrogate or wage psychological warfare against the Nazis. History knows them as the Ritchie Boys.

Before shipping out to Europe, where they were attached to different military units, some Ritchie Boys anglicized their names and changed the religious designation on their dog tags — protection in case they were captured by the Germans. It turned out to be a wise, if not foolproof, precaution.

Many of these soldiers landed at Normandy, France, on D-Day, June 6, 1944, and others followed to perform their specialized tasks, which provided advanced intelligence to allied forces regarding German war plans and tactics.

Taking their lives into their own hands, the “Ritchie Boys” provided roughly 2/3 of the human intelligence used in the fight against the Nazis. Their work saved hundreds of thousands of lives and may have actually shortened the war. Inasmuch as they were directed not to share this classified information about their training and exploits during the war, only recently have we learned about these special individuals. 

Following the war, some of the Ritchie Boys were interrogators during the Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminals.

Information about the Ritchie Boys was only declassified around 2011.

Jewish Medal of Honor Awardees CIVIL WAR

Benjamin Levy

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

benjaminlevyRank: Private

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company G, 1st New York Infantry

Birthdate: February 22, 1845

Place of Birth: New York, New York

Date of Death: July 20, 1921

Battle or Place of Action: Glendale, Virginia

Date of Action: June 30, 1862


This soldier, a drummer boy, took the gun of a sick comrade, went into the fight, and when the color bearers were shot down, carried the colors and saved them from capture.

David Urbansky

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

urbanskyRank: Private

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company B 58th Ohio Infantry

Birthdate: 1843

Place of Birth: Lautenberg, Prussia

Date of Death: January 22, 1897

Battle or Place of Action: Shiloh, Tennessee and Vicksburg, Mississippi

Date of Action: 1862 & 1863


Gallantry in action

Abraham Cohn

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

kohnRank: Sergeant Major

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: 6th New Hampshire Infantry

Birthdate: 1832

Place of Birth: Guttentag, Silesia, Prussia

Date of Death: June 2, 1897

Battle or Place of Action: Wilderness Campaign & at the mine, Petersburg, Virginia

Date of Action: May 6 & July 30, 1864


During Battle of the Wilderness rallied and formed, under heavy fire, disorganized and fleeing troops of different regiments. At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864, bravely and coolly carried orders to the advanced line under severe fire.

Leopold Karpeles

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

karpelesRank: Sergeant

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company E, 57th Massachusetts Infantry

Birthdate: September 8, 1838

Place of Birth: Prague, Austria-Hungary

Date of Death: February 2, 1909

Battle or Place of Action: Wilderness Campaign, Virginia

Date of Action: May 6, 1864


While color bearer, rallied the retreating troops and induced them to check the enemy's advance. Official Record says "Gallantry in action...."

Isaac Gause 

Isaac Gause  was a corporal in Union Army during the American Civil War and a recipient of the highest military decoration for valor in combat, the Medal of Honor, for having distinguished himself near Berryville, Virginia, on September 13, 1864.

Abraham Grunwalt

Received the Medal of Honor because he captured the flag of the Confederate Corps Headquarters at Franklin, Tennessee

Henry Heller

Henry Heller was a Union Army sergeant during the American Civil War and a recipient of America's highest military decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions at the Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863.

There were other feats of valor for example:

Lieutenant Max Sachs, killed at Bowling green, Kentucky, held the enemy at bay until enough support arrived to repel him.

William Durst fought in the famous battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac in March 1862


Simon Suhler

American Jewish Recipients of The Medal of Honor

suhlerName used during service: Charles Gardner

Rank: Private

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company B, 8th U.S. Cavalry

Birthdate: 1844

Place of Birth: Bavaria, Germany

Date of Death: May 16, 1895

Battle or Place of Action: Arizona

Date of Action: August – October 1868

Citation: Bravery in scouts and actions against Indians.


Samuel Marguilies

American Jewish Recipients of The Medal of Honor

MarguliesName used during service: Samuel Gross

Rank: Private

Service: U.S. Marine Corps

Unit: 23rd Company

Birthdate: May 8, 1891

Place of Birth: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Date of Death: September 13, 1934

Battle or Place of Action: Fort Riviere, Haiti

Date of Action: November 17, 1915


In company with members of the Fifth, Thirteenth, Twenty-third Companies and Marine and sailor detachments from the U.S.S. Connecticut, Gross participated in the attack on Fort Riviere, Haiti. Following a concentrated drive, several different detachments of Marines gradually closed in on the old French bastion fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of retreat for the Caco Bandits. Approaching a breach in the wall, which was the only entrance to the fort, Gross was the second man to pass through the breach in face of constant fire from the Caco Bandits and, thereafter, for a ten minute period, engaged the enemy in desperate hand-to-hand combat until the bastion was captured and the Caco resistance neutralized.


William Sawelson

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: SergeantSawelson

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company M, 312th Infantry, 78th Division

Birthdate: August 5, 1895

Place of Birth: Newark, New Jersey

Date of Death: October 26, 1918

Battle or Place of Action: at Grand-Pre, France

Date of Action: October 26, 1918


Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole some distance away calling for water, Sgt. Sawelson, upon his own initiative, left shelter and crawled through heavy machinegun fire to where the man lay, giving him what water he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell hole, obtained more water, and was returning to the wounded man when he was killed by a machinegun bullet.

Sydney Gumpertz

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: First SergeantGumpertz

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company E, 132d Infantry 33d Division

Birthdate: October 24, 1879

Place of Birth: San Raphael, California

Date of Death: February 16, 1971

Battle or Place of Action: in the Bois-de-Forges, France

Date of Action: September 29, 1918


When the advancing line was held up by machinegun fire, 1st Sgt. Gumpertz left the platoon of which he was in command and started with 2 other soldiers through a heavy barrage toward the machinegun nest. His 2 companions soon became casualties from bursting shells, but 1st Sgt. Gumpertz continued on alone in the face of direct fire from the machinegun, jumped into the nest and silenced the gun, capturing 9 of the crew.

William Shemin

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: SergeantShemin_new1

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company G, 47th Infantry, 4th Division

Birthdate: October 14, 1896

Place of Birth: New York, New York

Date of Death: August 15, 1973

Battle or Place of Action: Vesle River, South East of Bazoches, France

Date of Action: August 7-9, 1918

Sergeant William Shemin was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, in June of 2015.


Sergeant Shemin distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Rifleman with G Company, 2d Battalion, 47th Infantry Regiment, 4th Division, American Expeditionary Forces, in connection with combat operations against an armed enemy on the Vesle River, near Bazoches, France from August 7 to August 9, 1918. Sergeant Shemin left cover and crossed open space, repeatedly exposing himself to heavy machine-gun and rifle fire, to rescue wounded. After Officers and Senior Noncommissioned Officers had become casualties, Sergeant Shemin took command of the platoon and displayed great initiative under fire until wounded on August 9. Sergeant Shemin’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.

Benjamin Kaufman

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: First SergeantBenjamin Kaufman

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company K, 308th Infantry, 77th Division

Birthdate: March 10, 1894

Place of Birth: Buffalo, New York

Date of Death: February 5, 1981

Battle or Place of Action: in Argonne Forest, France

Date of Action: October 4, 1918


He took out a patrol for the purpose of attacking an enemy machine-gun which had checked the advance of his company. Before reaching the gun he became separated from his patrol and a machine-gun bullet shattered his right arm. Without hesitation he advanced on the gun alone, throwing grenades with his left hand and charging with an empty pistol, taking one prisoner and scattering the crew, bringing the gun and prisoner back to the first-aid station.




Raymond Zussman

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: Second Lieutenantzussmanportrait

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company A, 756th Tank Battalion, 3d Infantry Division

Birthdate: July 23, 1917

Place of Birth: Hamtramck, Michigan

Date of Death: September 21, 1944

Battle or Place of Action: Noroy le Bourg, France

Date of Action: September 12, 1944


On 12 September 1944, 2d Lt. Zussman was in command of 2 tanks operating with an infantry company in the attack on enemy forces occupying the town of Noroy le Bourg, France. At 7 p.m., his command tank bogged down. Throughout the ensuing action, armed only with a carbine, he reconnoitered alone on foot far in advance of his remaining tank and the infantry. Returning only from time to time to designate targets, he directed the action of the tank and turned over to the infantry the numerous German soldiers he had caused to surrender. He located a road block and directed his tanks to destroy it. Fully exposed to fire from enemy positions only 50 yards distant, he stood by his tank directing its fire. Three Germans were killed and 8 surrendered. Again he walked before his tank, leading it against an enemy-held group of houses, machinegun and small arms fire kicking up dust at his feet. The tank fire broke the resistance and 20 enemy surrendered. Going forward again alone he passed an enemy-occupied house from which Germans fired on him and threw grenades in his path. After a brief fire fight, he signaled his tank to come up and fire on the house. Eleven German soldiers were killed and 15 surrendered. Going on alone, he disappeared around a street corner. The fire of his carbine could be heard and in a few minutes he reappeared driving 30 prisoners before him. Under 2d Lt. Zussman’s heroic and inspiring leadership, 18 enemy soldiers were killed and 92 captured.

Isadore Jachman

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: Staff Sergeantjachman2

Service: U.S. Army

Unit:Company B, 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 17th Airborne Division

Birthdate: December 14, 1922

Place of Birth: Berlin, Germany

Date of Death: January 4, 1945

Battle or Place of Action: Flamierge, Belgium

Date of Action: January 4, 1945


For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty at Flamierge, Belgium, on 4 January 1945, when his company was pinned down by enemy artillery, mortar, and small arms fire, 2 hostile tanks attacked the unit, inflicting heavy casualties. S/Sgt. Jachman, seeing the desperate plight of his comrades, left his place of cover and with total disregard for his own safety dashed across open ground through a hail of fire and seizing a bazooka from a fallen comrade advanced on the tanks, which concentrated their fire on him. Firing the weapon alone, he damaged one and forced both to retire. S/Sgt. Jachman’s heroic action, in which he suffered fatal wounds, disrupted the entire enemy attack, reflecting the highest credit upon himself and the parachute infantry.

Ben L. Salomon

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: CaptainSalomon_Ben (1)

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: 105th Infantry Regiment, part of the 27th Infantry Division

Birthdate: September 1, 1914

Place of Birth: Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Date of Death: July 7, 1944

Battle or Place of Action: The island of Saipan, near the village of Tanapag

Date of Action: July 7, 1944

Captain Ben L. Salomon was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, in May of 2002.

The Citation:

Captain Ben L. Salomon was serving at Saipan, in the Marianas Islands on July 7, 1944, as the Surgeon for the 2d Battalion, 105th Infantry Regiment, 27th Infantry Division. The Regiment’s 1st and 2d Battalions were attacked by an overwhelming force estimated between 3,000 and 5,000 Japanese soldiers. It was one of the largest attacks attempted in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Although both units fought furiously, the enemy soon penetrated the Battalions’ combined perimeter and inflicted overwhelming casualties. In the first minutes of the attack, approximately 30 wounded soldiers walked, crawled, or were carried into Captain Salomon’s aid station, and the small tent soon filled with wounded men. As the perimeter began to be overrun, it became increasingly difficult for Captain Salomon to work on the wounded. He then saw a Japanese soldier bayoneting one of the wounded soldiers lying near the tent. Firing from a squatting position, Captain Salomon quickly killed the enemy soldier. Then, as he turned his attention back to the wounded, two more Japanese soldiers appeared in the front entrance of the tent. As these enemy soldiers were killed, four more crawled under the tent walls. Rushing them, Captain Salomon kicked the knife out of the hand of one, shot another, and bayoneted a third. Captain Salomon butted the fourth enemy soldier in the stomach and a wounded comrade then shot and killed the enemy soldier. Realizing the gravity of the situation, Captain Salomon ordered the wounded to make their way as best they could back to the regimental aid station, while he attempted to hold off the enemy until they were clear. Captain Salomon then grabbed a rifle from one of the wounded and rushed out of the tent. After four men were killed while manning a machine gun, Captain Salomon took control of it. When his body was later found, 98 dead enemy soldiers were piled in front of his position. Captain Salomon’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army


Tibor Rubin

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: Corporalrubin1

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division

Birthdate: June 18, 1929

Place of Birth: Hungary

Battle or Place of Action: Republic of Korea

Date of Action: July 23, 1950 to April 20, 1953


Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Corporal Tibor Rubin distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism during the period from July 23, 1950, to April 20, 1953, while serving as a rifleman with Company I, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division in the Republic of Korea. While his unit was retreating to the Pusan Perimeter, Corporal Rubin was assigned to stay behind to keep open the vital Taegu-Pusan Road link used by his withdrawing unit. During the ensuing battle, overwhelming numbers of North Korean troops assaulted a hill defended solely by Corporal Rubin. He inflicted a staggering number of casualties on the attacking force during his personal 24-hour battle, single-handedly slowing the enemy advance and allowing the 8th Cavalry Regiment to complete its withdrawal successfully. Following the breakout from the Pusan Perimeter, the 8th Cavalry Regiment proceeded northward and advanced into North Korea. During the advance, he helped capture several hundred North Korean soldiers. On October 30, 1950, Chinese forces attacked his unit at Unsan, North Korea, during a massive nighttime assault. That night and throughout the next day, he manned a .30 caliber machine gun at the south end of the unit’s line after three previous gunners became casualties. He continued to man his machine gun until his ammunition was exhausted. His determined stand slowed the pace of the enemy advance in his sector, permitting the remnants of his unit to retreat southward. As the battle raged, Corporal Rubin was severely wounded and captured by the Chinese. Choosing to remain in the prison camp despite offers from the Chinese to return him to his native Hungary, Corporal Rubin disregarded his own personal safety and immediately began sneaking out of the camp at night in search of food for his comrades. Breaking into enemy food storehouses and gardens, he risked certain torture or death if caught. Corporal Rubin provided not only food to the starving soldiers, but also desperately needed medical care and moral support for the sick and wounded of the POW camp. His brave, selfless efforts were directly attributed to saving the lives of as many as forty of his fellow prisoners. Corporal Rubin’s gallant actions in close contact with the enemy and unyielding courage and bravery while a prisoner of war are in the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Army.

Leonard M. Kravitz

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: Private First Classkravitz-2

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: Company M, 5th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division

Birthdate: August 8, 1930

Place of Birth: Brooklyn, New York

Battle or Place of Action: Republic of Korea

Date of Action: March 6, 1951 to March 7, 1951


For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Private First Class Leonard M. Kravitz distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an assistant machine gunner with Company M, 5th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Yangpyong, Korea on March 6 and 7, 1951. After friendly elements had repulsed two probing attacks, the enemy launched a fanatical banzai charge with heavy supporting fire and, despite staggering losses, pressed the assault with ruthless determination. When the machine gunner was wounded in the initial phase of the action, Private First Class Kravitz immediately seized the weapon and poured devastating fire into the ranks of the onrushing assailants. The enemy effected and exploited a breach on the left flank, rendering the friendly positions untenable. Upon order to withdraw, Private First Class Kravitz voluntarily remained to provide protective fire for the retiring elements. Detecting enemy troops moving toward friendly positions, Private First Class Kravitz swept the hostile soldiers with deadly, accurate fire, killing the entire group. His destructive retaliation caused the enemy to concentrate vicious fire on his position and enabled the friendly elements to withdraw. Later, after friendly troops had returned, Private First Class Kravitz was found dead behind the gun he had so heroically manned, surrounded by numerous enemy dead. Private First Class Kravitz’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.


John Lee Levitow


American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor








For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Levitow (then A1c.), U.S. Air Force, distinguished himself by exceptional heroism while assigned as a loadmaster aboard an AC-47 aircraft flying a night mission in support of Long Binh Army Post. Sgt. Levitow's aircraft was struck by a hostile mortar round. The resulting explosion ripped a hole two feet in diameter through the wing and fragments made over 3,500 holes in the fuselage. All occupants of the cargo compartment were wounded and helplessly slammed against the floor and fuselage. The explosion tore an activated flare from the grasp of a crewmember who had been launching flares to provide illumination for Army ground troops engaged in combat. Sgt. Levitow, though stunned by the concussion of the blast and suffering from over 40 fragment wounds in the back and legs, staggered to his feet and turned to assist the man nearest to him who had been knocked down and was bleeding heavily. As he was moving his wounded comrade forward and away from the opened cargo compartment door, he saw the smoking flare ahead of him in the aisle. Realizing the danger involved and completely disregarding his own wounds, Sgt. Levitow started toward the burning flare. The aircraft was partially out of control and the flare was rolling wildly from side to side. Sgt. Levitow struggled forward despite the loss of blood from his many wounds and the partial loss of feeling in his right leg. Unable to grasp the rolling flare with his hands, he threw himself bodily upon the burning flare. Hugging the deadly device to his body, he dragged himself back to the rear of the aircraft and hurled the flare through the open cargo door. At that instant the flare separated and ignited in the air, but clear of the aircraft. Sgt. Levitow, by his selfless and heroic actions, saved the aircraft and its entire crew from certain death and destruction. Sgt. Levitow's gallantry, his profound concern for his fellow men, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.

Jack Jacobs

American Jewish Recipients of the Medal of Honor

Rank: Captain (at time of action: First Lieutenant)jacobs2

Service: U.S. Army

Unit: U.S. Military Assistance Command, Army Element

Birthdate: August 2, 1945

Place of Birth: Brooklyn, New York

Battle or Place of Action: Kien Phong Province, Republic of Vietnam

Date of Action: March 9, 1968


For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Jacobs (then 1st Lt.), Infantry, distinguished himself while serving as assistant battalion advisor, 2d Battalion, 16th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division, Army of the Republic of Vietnam. The 2d Battalion was advancing to contact when it came under intense heavy machine gun and mortar fire from a Viet Cong battalion positioned in well fortified bunkers. As the 2d Battalion deployed into attack formation its advance was halted by devastating fire. Capt. Jacobs, with the command element of the lead company, called for and directed air strikes on the enemy positions to facilitate a renewed attack. Due to the intensity of the enemy fire and heavy casualties to the command group, including the company commander, the attack stopped and the friendly troops became disorganized. Although wounded by mortar fragments, Capt. Jacobs assumed command of the allied company, ordered a withdrawal from the exposed position and established a defensive perimeter. Despite profuse bleeding from head wounds which impaired his vision, Capt. Jacobs, with complete disregard for his safety, returned under intense fire to evacuate a seriously wounded advisor to the safety of a wooded area where he administered lifesaving first aid. He then returned through heavy automatic weapons fire to evacuate the wounded company commander. Capt. Jacobs made repeated trips across the fire-swept open rice paddies evacuating wounded and their weapons. On 3 separate occasions, Capt. Jacobs contacted and drove off Viet Cong squads who were searching for allied wounded and weapons, single-handedly killing 3 and wounding several others. His gallant actions and extraordinary heroism saved the lives of 1 U.S. advisor and 13 allied soldiers. Through his effort the allied company was restored to an effective fighting unit and prevented defeat of the friendly forces by a strong and determined enemy. Capt. Jacobs, by his gallantry and bravery in acti on in the highest traditions of the military service, has reflected great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.



Jews were involved in the activities of the National Advisory Council for Aeronautics in the U.S.A., and many are concerned with some aspect or other of its successor organization, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which operates the U.S. astronautical program.

Three directors of large divisions of NASA were Abe *Silverstein (Lewis Research Center), Abraham Hyatt (program planning and evaluation), and Leonard Jaffe (Communications Systems of Satellites). 

Daniel Saul *Goldin was the longest-serving director of NASA (1992–2001).



Boris Volynov       (Russian)

Lieutenant  Colonel, Boris Valentinovich Volynov is a Soviet cosmonaut who flew two space missions of the Soyuz programmeSoyuz 5, and Soyuz 21.

Judith Resnik      

Judith Arlene Resnik was an American electrical engineersoftware engineerbiomedical engineerpilot and NASA astronaut who died in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger during the launch of mission STS-51-L. Resnik was the fourth woman, the second American woman, and the first Jewish woman of any nationality to fly in space, logging 145 hours in orbit. Her first space flight was the STS-41-D mission in August and September 1984, when her duties included operating the Space Shuttle's robotic arm.

Jeffrey A. Hoffman

Jeffrey Alan Hoffman is an American former NASA astronaut and currently a professor of aeronautics and astronautics at MIT.

Hoffman made five flights as a Space Shuttle astronaut, including the first mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope in 1993, when the orbiting telescope's flawed optical system was corrected.[1] Trained as an astrophysicist, he also flew on the 1990 Spacelab Shuttle mission that featured the Astro-1 ultraviolet astronomical observatory in the Shuttle's payload bay. Over the course of his five missions he logged more than 1,211 hours and 21.5 million miles in space. He was also NASA's second Jewish astronaut, and the second Jewish man in space after Soviet cosmonaut Boris Volynov.[2]

Ellen S Baker       

Ellen Louise Shulman BakerM.D., is an American 

physician and a former NASA astronaut. Baker serves as Chief of the Education/Medical Branch of the NASA Astronaut Office

Marsha Ivins

Marsha Sue Ivins is an American retired astronaut and a veteran of five Space Shuttle missions. She has flown aboard five space missions: STS-32 (1990), STS-46 (1992), STS-62 (1994), STS-81 (1997), and STS-98 (2001).[2][3] Ivins retired from NASA on December 31, 2010.

STS-32 (January 9–20, 1990) launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on an eleven-day flight, during which crew members on board the Space Shuttle Columbia successfully deployed a Syncom satellite, and retrieved the 21,400-pound Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Mission duration was 261 hours, 1 minute, and 38 seconds. Following 173 orbits of the Earth and 4.5 million miles, Columbia returned with a night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California.[4]

STS-46 (July 31 – August 8, 1992) was an 8-day mission, during which crew members deployed the EURECA (European Retrievable Carrier) satellite, and conducted the first Tethered Satellite System (TSS) test flight. Mission duration was 191 hours, 16 minutes, and 7 seconds. Space Shuttle Atlantis and her crew launched and landed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, completing 126 orbits of the Earth in 3.35 million miles.[5]

STS-62 (March 4–18, 1994) was a 14-day mission for the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) 2 and Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) 2 payloads. These payloads studied the effects of microgravity on materials sciences and other space flight technologies. Other experiments on board included demonstration of advanced teleoperator tasks using the remote manipulator system, protein crystal growth, and dynamic behavior of space structures. Mission duration was 312 hours, 23 minutes, and 16 seconds. Space Shuttle Columbia launched and landed at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, completing 224 orbits in 5.82 million miles.[6]

STS-81 Atlantis (January 12–22, 1997) was a 10-day mission, the fifth to dock with Russia's Space Station Mir, and the second to exchange U.S. astronauts. The mission also carried the Spacehab double module providing additional middeck locker space for secondary experiments. In five days of docked operations more than three tons of food, water, experiment equipment and samples were moved back and forth between the two spacecraft. Following 160 orbits of the Earth, the STS-81 mission concluded with a landing on Kennedy Space Center's Runway 33 ending a 3.9 million mile journey. Mission duration was 244 hours, 56 minutes.[7]

STS-98 Atlantis (February 7–20, 2001) continued the task of building and enhancing the International Space Station by delivering the U.S. laboratory module Destiny. The Shuttle spent seven days docked to the station while Destiny was attached and three spacewalks were conducted to complete its assembly. The crew also relocated a docking port, and delivered supplies and equipment to the resident Expedition-1 crew. Space Shuttle Atlantis returned to land at Edwards Air Force Base, California traveling 5.3 million miles in 203 orbits. Mission duration was 12 days, 21 hours, 20 minutes.[8]

David Wolf

David Alexander Wolf (is an American astronaut, medical doctor and electrical engineer.[1] Wolf has been to space four times. Three of his spaceflights were short-duration Space Shuttle missions, the first of which was STS-58 in 1993, and his most recent spaceflight was STS-127 in 2009. Wolf also took part in a long-duration mission aboard the Russian space station Mir which lasted 128 days, and occurred during Mir EO-24. He was brought to Mir aboard STS-86 in September 1997, and landed aboard STS-89 in January 1998. In total Wolf has logged more than 4,040 hours in space. He is also a veteran of 7 spacewalks totaling 41hrs 17min in both Russian and American spacesuits.

Martin J. Fettman

Martin Joseph Fettman (B.S.D.V.M.M.S.Ph.D.

DiplomateACVP) is an American pathologist and researcher who flew on NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-58 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia as a Payload Specialist.

John M Grunsfeld

John Mace Grunsfeld is an American physicist and a former NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of five Space Shuttle flights and has served as NASA Chief Scientist. His academic background includes research in high energy astrophysicscosmic ray physics and the emerging field of exoplanet studies with specific interest in future astronomical instrumentation.[1] After retiring from NASA in 2009, he served as the Deputy Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute in BaltimoreMaryland. In January 2012, he returned to NASA and served as associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD)

Scott J Horowitz

Scott Jay "Doc" Horowitz is a retired American astronaut and a veteran of four Space Shuttle missions.

Horowitz went to California State University, Northridge in 1974 where he earned his B.S. degree in engineering in 1978;[1] he subsequently obtained a Ph.D. degree in aerospace engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1982,[2] and then worked as a scientist for Lockheed Company.

Horowitz joined the United States Air Force and flew as a T-38 and F-15 pilot while also teaching courses in aircraft design and propulsion at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and later California State University, Fresno. He graduated from the United States Air Force Test Pilot School in Dec, 1990 as a member of class 90-A. Horowitz was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 1992, and piloted missions STS-75 (1996), STS-82 (1997) and STS-101 (2000). He commanded mission STS-105 (2001), a visit to the International Space Station for equipment and crew transfer.

Mark L Polansky

Mark Lewis "Roman" Polansky (born June 2, 1956, in Paterson, New Jersey) is an American aerospace engineer and research pilot and a former NASA astronaut. Polansky received the nickname "Roman" as a joke, because he shares a last name with director Roman Polanski. In 1983, Polansky transitioned to the F-5E aircraft and served as an Aggressor Pilot, where he trained tactical aircrews to defeat enemy aircraft tactics. He was selected to attend USAF Test Pilot School, Edwards AFB, California, in 1986. Upon graduation, he was assigned to Eglin AFB, Florida, where he conducted weapons and systems testing in the F-15, F-15E, and A-10 aircraft. Polansky left active duty in 1992 to pursue a career at NASA. He flew on three Space Shuttle missions: STS-98STS-116, and STS-127.

Ilan Ramon (Israeli)

Ilan Ramon born Ilan Wolfferman אילן וולפרמן was an Israeli fighter pilot and later the first Israeli astronaut. Ramon was a Space Shuttle payload specialist of STS-107, the fatal mission of Columbia, in which he and the six other crew members were killed when the spacecraft

disintegrated during re-entry. At 48, he was the oldest member of the crew. Ramon is the only foreign recipient of the United States Congressional Space Medal of Honor, which he was awarded posthumously.

Garrett Reisman

Garrett Erin Reisman is an American engineer and former NASA astronaut. He was a backup crew member for Expedition 15 and joined Expedition 16 aboard the International Space Station for a short time before becoming a member of Expedition 17. He returned to Earth on June 14, 2008 on board STS-124 on Space Shuttle Discovery. He was a member of the STS-132 mission that traveled to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis from May 14 to 26, 2010. He is a consultant at SpaceX and a Professor of Astronautics Practice at the University of Southern California's Viterbi School of Engineering.[1

In June 2003, Reisman served as an aquanaut during the NEEMO 5 mission aboard the Aquarius underwater laboratory, living and working under water for fourteen days.[6]

Grergory Chamiloff

Gregory Errol Chamitoff is a Canadian-born American engineer and former NASA astronaut. He has been to space twice, spending 6 months aboard the ISS across Expedition 17 and 18 in 2008, and another 15 days as part of STS-134 in 2011. STS-134 was the last of Space Shuttle Endeavour which delivered the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer and completed the US Orbital Segment.[3]

In 2008, Chamitoff voted from outer space; he also conducted a live-from-space satellite chat with students attending school in London.[6]



An early contribution by a Jew to aviation was the cigarshaped airship with an aluminum framework designed in 1892 by the Zagreb timber merchant David *Schwarz. His designs were sold to Count Zeppelin, who carried them through to produce the airship known as the "Zeppelin."

Another pioneer of flight-theory was Josef *Popper (1838–1921), who as early as 1888 considered the problems of flight-theory in his Flugtechnik.

The development of French aviation was furthered by Henri *Deutsch de la Meurthe(1846–1919), who donated the first prize won by the Brazilian Santos-Dumont in October 1901 for flying an airship around the Eiffel Tower. After establishing an experimental aeronautics station at Sartrouville, Deutsch founded the Aeronautic Institute at Saint-Cyr in 1909. His daughter Suzanne (1892–1937) continued his work.

In 1901 Arthur *Berson, director of the Prussian Aeronautical Observatory and a major personality in contemporary investigations of the upper atmosphere, navigated a balloon to what was then a record height of 35,100 feet (10,700 meters), and in 1908 he made a flight over the equator in East Africa at great heights.

Other Jewish aviation pioneers were Emile *Berliner, the first man to make lightweight revolving-cylinder internal-combustion engines and to equip airplanes with them; 

Eduard *Rumpler, whose "Rumplertaube" was used by Germany in World War I; August Goldschmidt of Vienna, an inventor of a novel type of balloon in 1911;

the Russian pilot Vseuolod Abramovich, who held the world record in 1912;

Fred Melchior of Sweden, an expert pilot who won many awards;

Arthur L. *Welsh, U.S. aviation instructor and test pilot, who died in 1912 while testing a new load-carrying military biplane;

Ellis Dunitz (1888–1913), chief instructor in the German Naval Air Service; Victor Betman, winner in 1914 of the speed flight between Vienna and Budapest;

Arthur Landmann of Germany, holder of the world endurance record for 1914;

and Leonino Da Zara, the father of Italian aeronautics.

Interwar Period

Marcel Bloch (later *Dassault) became a major aircraft manufacturer in France from the period between the two world wars. Harry F. Guggenheim (see *Guggenheim Family) was a U.S. pilot in World War I, and later a lieutenant-commander in the U.S. Navy (and U.S. ambassador to Cuba). His father, Daniel Guggenheim, established the Guggenheim Foundation, at that time the leading private organization in the aeronautics field, and in 1925 he created a pioneer school of aeronautics at New York University.

Still active after World War I, Emile Berliner, with the help of his son Henry Adler *Berliner, designed and built three different kinds of helicopters (1919–26).

Karl Arnstein was chief construction engineer with the Zeppelin Company; in 1924 one of his airships flew the Atlantic. With the coming of the Nazis he left Germany for America, and from 1934 was employed by the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation as chief engineer and vice president. Among the many airships he designed were the dirigibles "Los Angeles" and "Akron," which were used by the U.S. Navy.

America's first civilian superintendent of airmail was Captain Benjamin B. Lipsner, and Harold Zinn of Savannah was the first flying mail carrier in North and South Carolina.

Sergeant Benjamin Roth was the mechanic in the aeronautic squad in the Byrd expedition to the Antarctic in the 1920s.

Professor Aldo Pontremoli, head of the department of physics at the University of Milan, was in charge of meteorological research in the 1928 Italian expedition to the North Pole, an expedition which cost him his life.

Charles A. Levine (1897–1991) was the first flight passenger over the Atlantic. In 1927 he traveled 3,903 mi. (6,295 km. – a world record at the time) from New York to Eisleben, Germany. Levine himself financed this pioneer flight.

In 1930 the Viennese Robert Kronfeld created a world record by gliding 93 mi. (150 km.) and in 1931 he won the London Daily Mail prize by gliding over the English Channel.

Jewish women pilots included Mildred Kauffman of Kansas City, Peggy Salaman of England (winner of the third prize in the King's Cup Race in 1931 who established a record in the same year by her flight from England to Cape Town with Gordon Score), and Lena Bernstein of France. A number of Jews were also academic authorities on aerodynamics.

Postwar Aeronautics

Sir Ben *Lockspeiser was deputy director at the British Ministry of Aircraft Production in the critical years of the war from 1941.

In France, René Bloch was director of aviation in the French Navy and later in the Ministry of Defense.

Erich Schatzki was a pilot and then chief engineer of Lufthansa in pre-Nazi days, and an early general manager of Israel's El Al.

Benedict Cohn was head aerodynamicist for the Boeing Company, and Benjamin Pinkel headed the Rand Corporation's aero-astronautical department. Richard Shevell (1920–2000) helped design the DC-10 at Douglas Aircraft and taught aeronautics at Stanford.