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·         History is full of Jewish inventors, some of whom are responsible for many of the most important inventions of our time. This is the start of a collaborative project of Jewish Inventors. It has so far been based on the data from Encyclopaedia Britannica (2007), and The Golden Age of Jewish Achievement, both of which state the list of 321 great inventions goes back to 13,000 B.C. Many are so old that no individual inventor can be identified (such as beer 6000 B.C, wine 4000 B.C, or the boomerang).

·         This number of Jewish involvement in inventions is roughly one hundred times what one would expect.

·         Ref: The Golden Age of Jewish Achievement - Steven L. Pease

·         Some of the inventors have been honored by Encyclopaedia Britannica. Many of them have shaped world history and have made a difference to our daily lives.

Charles Adler Jr. 

was an American inventor and engineer. He is most known for developing devices meant to improve 

transportation safety, including sonically actuated traffic lights, colorblind road signals, pedestrian push-buttons, and flashing aircraft lights.


Adler created an automatically triggered system that flashed two lights alternatively in a wigwag pattern when a train was approaching. This invention, called the Adler Flashing Relay, received the American Railway Association’s endorsement and was later adopted by over 40 railroad companies.


Sonically actuated traffic light

In the 1920s Adler worked on developing the sonically actuated traffic light. To operate it, drivers pulled up to a red light and honked their horns to make the light change. The system, designed for use on intersections between lightly traveled and major roads, was first installed by Baltimore on February 22, 1928 at the intersection of Falls Road and then-Belvedere Avenue (now Northern Parkway) and still stands today. Further production of this design was picked up by General Electric, but Adler’s traffic signal was beat out by another invention. This was the first actuated traffic signal in the US and served as the basis for modern traffic signals.

On February 4, 1929 Adler installed a pedestrian push button at the intersection of Charles Street and Cold Spring Lane in Baltimore. It was the first pedestrian-actuated signal.

He patented an external lighting system for airplanes to help pilots better see each other at night. This patent, along with 9 of his other inventions, were transferred by Adler to the US government in the name of safety.[3]


In 1933, Adler’s double-filament lamp was installed on the Pennsylvania Central Railroad. The ability of the bulb to function at half-capacity, even when burnt out, was beneficial in keeping railroad crossing lights functioning for long periods of time. The system remained part of the Pennsylvania Central Railroad until the 1970s.


Robert Adler was a brilliant physicist and inventor who narrowly escaped the Holocaust, came to the U.S. to help discover innovations like the electric beam parametric amplifier and touch-screen technology. But he is best-known as “the father of the clicker.”

Yes, the next time you channel surf with your remote control – which Adler reportedly never did – you can thank this Austrian-born genius. Born in 1913, Adler earned a doctorate in physics at the University of Vienna in 1937, a year before the AnschlussGermany’s annexation of AustriaWhen he got to the U.S. in 1941, he was enlisted by top engineering executives at Zenith Electronics. Though he wanted to help Zenith in supporting the U.S.’s war efforts, Adler was still technically Bottom of Forma German national, so he didn’t pass security clearance. Instead, Zenith gave him a lab and free reign to explore. (Still, he helped develop parametric amplifiers and oscillators which were pivotal for U.S. Air Force communications missile detection.)

In 1956, Zenith rolled out Adler’s claim to fame – the Space Command ultrasonic wireless remote control. People could now just point and click“Nothing between you and the set but space!” said the ads.

And thus, the couch potato was born.

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov was a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for the development of the semiconductor heterojunction for optoelectronics

Selig Percy AmoilsFRCS, is a South African ophthalmologist and biomedical engineering inventor. In 1965, Amoils refined the cryoextraction

method of cataract surgery by developing a cryoprobe that was cooled through the Joule-Thomson effect of gas expansion. His system is still widely used in the fields of ophthalmology and  gynaecology.

Amoils was also awarded a patent for his "rotary epithelial scrubber", an improvement on the brush first developed by Ioannis Pallikaris that removes corneal epithelial cells in preparation for photorefractive keratectomy.[6][7] Another development of his in 1970, was the diamond vitrectomy cutter, various instruments enabling micro-control of blade depth in radial keratotomy, as well as the oval comparator, or astigmometer, to control astigmatism after cataract surgery.

Alan Amron is an American inventor who holds 40 United States patents.

Noteworthy Amron inventions include:

·         The Photo Wallet, invented by Amron for his company VideoChip Technologies, was the first handheld battery-operated digital photo frame. It could display JPG and MPG files, and read Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word documents.[3] The product was licensed to Nikon.

·          Amron invented the first battery-operated water gun.[6][7] In the first year, this invention had earned him $250,000 in royalties.]

·         Amron has invented and designed a First Down Laser Line system, which would extend the concept of the computer-generated first down yellow line seen on-screen during televised football games by projecting such a line on the physical field at the stadium. Amron met with the NFL in 2003 and again in 2009, and in 2013 a league spokesman said "We have not been convinced that it would work for us, but we are open to further discussion after the season." A similar Leading Mark Laser invented by Amron was used in the 2013 and 2014 NCAA National track and field championships at the University of Oregon. Amron's laser line projection system was also used to replace the costly painted yellow cautionary lines in warehouses.


Hermann Aron- German engineer- electric meter.

In 1883 he patented the "Pendelzähler" - the first accurate watt-hour meter. He also invented another Wattmeter which is a circuit for measuring total power in three-phase AC circuits, whilst requiring only two direct measurements of power.


Chaim Aronson-Lithuanian inventor and memoirist.

His inventions included several machines for mass-producing cigarettes, a clockwork calculator, a prototype for a movie camera, and the microdiorama.


Hertha Marks Ayrton - English mathematician and engineer- first woman to win Hughes Medal for her work on electric arcs and ripples in sand and water.

She also constructed a sphygmomanometer (blood pressure meter),  From 1884 until her death, Hertha registered 26 patents: five on mathematical dividers, 13 on arc lamps and electrodes, the rest on the propulsion of air.


Ralph Henry Baer (born Rudolf Heinrich Baer; was a German-American inventor, game developer, and engineer. Baer is considered "the Father of Video Games" due to his many contributions to games and helping to spark the video game industry in the latter half of the 20th century.

He was working as an engineer at Sanders Associates (now BAE Systems) in Nashua, NH, when he conceived the idea of playing games on a television screen around 1966. With support of his employers, he worked through several prototypes until he arrived at a "Brown Box" that would later become the blueprint for the first home video game console, licensed by Magnavox as the Magnavox Odyssey. Baer continued to design several other consoles and computer game units, including contributing to design of the Simon electronic game. Baer had over 150 patents


Donát Bánki born as Donát Lőwinger was Hungarian mechanical engineer wh he invented the carburetor for the stationary engine, together with János Csonka (known as the Bánki-Csonka engine). The invention is often, incorrectly credited to the German Wilhelm Maybach, who submitted his patent half a year after Bánki and Csonka. Bánki also greatly contributed to the design of compressors for combustion engines.


Bernhard Baron was a tobacco manufacturer and philanthropist. Following work at a tobacco factory in the United States, and time spent making cigarettes by hand, he invented a cigarette-making machine.


Aaron Temkin Beck


Psychiatrist considered to be the Father of cognitive therapy.


Felix Alexandrovich Berezinwas a Soviet Russian mathematician and physicist known for his contributions to the theory of supersymmetry and supermanifolds as well as to the path integral formulation of quantum field theory.

The Berezin integral over anticommuting Grassmann variables is named for him, as is the closely related construction of the Berezinian which may be regarded as the "super"-analog of the determinant.


Emile Berliner originally Emil Berliner, was a German-American inventor. He is best known for inventing the lateral-cut flat disc record. His other inventions include a new type of loom for mass-production of cloth; an acoustic tile; and an early version of the helicopter. Berliner experimented with the use of a vertically mounted tail rotor to counteract torque on his single main rotor design. It was this configuration that led to the mechanical development of practical helicopters of the 1940s. 


Eli Biham received his Ph.D. for inventing (publicly) differential cryptanalysis, while working under Adi Shamir. It had, it turned out, been invented at least twice before. A team at IBM discovered it during their work on DES, and was requested/required to keep their discovery secret by the NSA, who evidently knew about it as well.


Simcha Blass – water drip system

In 1946, he planned the first water pipeline to the Negev, the pipes for which had been used in London during the Blitz for extinguishing fire and bought by Blass after World War II. This pipeline enabled the establishment of 11 new Jewish settlements in the Negev towards the end of the British Mandate for Palestine, on a single evening (Yom Kippur night) in 1946; it also served Bedouin

 Arabs. The Jewish settlements in the Negev had a major role influencing the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) to include most of the Negev within the boundaries of the recommended Jewish state.


In the early 1930s, a farmer drew his attention to a big tree, growing in his backyard "without water". After digging below the apparently dry surface, Simcha Blass discovered why: water from a leaking coupling was causing a small wet area on the surface, while an expanding onion-shaped area of underground water was reaching the roots of this particular tree—and not the others. This sight of tiny drops penetrating the soil causing the growth of a giant tree provided the catalyst for Blass's invention. The drip irrigation concept was born and experiments that followed led Blass to create an irrigation device that used friction and water pressure loss to leak drops of water at regular intervals. Recognizing the high potential of his discovery, he began to look for ways to turn his idea into a product.

In the late 1950s, with the advent of modern plastics

during and after World War II, he took a major step towards implementing his idea. The main aspect of the new invention was to release water through larger and longer passageways (rather than tiny holes) by using friction to slow water inside a plastic emitter. Larger passageways prevented the blocking of tiny holes by very small particles. In the early 1960s, Blass developed and patented this method and the new dripper was the first practical surface drip irrigation emitter.

Charles K. Bliss- pictorial symbolic language

Bliss said that the symbols on his father's circuit diagrams made instant sense to him. They were a "logical language". He was similarly impressed by chemical symbols, which he thought could be read by anyone, regardless of their mother tongue.


In Shanghai, Bliss became interested in Chinese characters, which he mistakenly thought were ideograms.. With some astonishment, he one day realised that he had been reading the Chinese symbols off not in Chinese, but in his own language, German. With ideograms for his inspiration, Bliss set out to develop a system of writing by pictures. At that time Bliss had not become aware of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's "Universal Symbolism".


Bliss invented “World Writing” with pictures, but there was no acceptance of his idea.Bliss learned that since 1965, the Ontario Crippled Children's Centre in TorontoCanada (now Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital) had been using his symbols to teach children with cerebral palsy to communicate.


Baruch Samuel Blumberg known as Barry Blumberg — was an American physiciangeneticist, and co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek), for his work on the hepatitis B virus while an investigator at the NIH.

Blumberg and Gajdusek received the Nobel Prize for discovering "new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases. Blumberg identified the hepatitis B virus, and later developed its diagnostic test and vaccine.

László József Bíró  born László József Schweiger Hispanicized as Ladislao José Biro, was a Hungarian-Argentine inventor who patented the first commercially successful modern ballpoint pen. The first ballpoint pen had been invented roughly 50 years earlier by John J. Loud, but it was not a commercial success.

Samuel E Blum - LASIK eye surgery. Was an American Chemist and Physicist who worked with semiconductor

 materials, which was his specialization. Blum's most notable invention is the patent on the ultraviolet excimer laser, which is used in surgical and dental procedures, which provided the laser technology that is central in LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) surgery. The co-inventors included chemist 

Rangaswamy Srinivasan(g) and physicist James J. Wynne(g). The contribution of this technology to LASIK has brought 20/20 vision and freedom from eyeglasses and contact lenses to millions of people.

Dan Boneh - applied cryptography and computer security

) is an Israeli-American professor in applied cryptography

 and computer security at Stanford University. He

is one of the principal contributors to the development of pairing-based cryptography from the Weil Pairing, along with Matt Franklin of the University of California, Davis.

Rabbi Dr. Michael Cahn – invented the Metzitza tube for sucking up the blood during circumcision.


Claude Cohen-Tannoudji- research in methods of laser cooling and trapping atoms. His work eventually led to the Nobel Prize in physics in 1997 "for the development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light", shared with Steven Chu(g)and William Daniel Phillips(g). Cohen-Tannoudji was the first physics Nobel prize winner born in an Arab country.


Frederick B. Cohen is an American computer scientist and best known as the inventor of computer virus defense techniques. He gave the definition of "computer virus". Cohen is best known for his pioneering work on computer viruses, the invention of high integrity operating system mechanisms now in widespread use, and automation of protection management functions.


Stanley Norman Cohen is an American geneticist. He and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetical engineering. Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work, including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine.[6] According to immunologist Hugh McDevitt, "Cohen's DNA cloning technology has helped biologists in virtually every field". Without it, "the face of biomedicine and biotechnology would look totally different."


Frank Benjamin Colton American chemist who first synthesized noretynodrel, the progestin used in Enovid, the first oral contraceptive, at G. D. Searle & Company 


Martin Cooper 

Though many people were involved in the production of the cellphone, credit is given to Martin Cooper nicknamed the “father of the cellphone”, who made the first cellular phone call in New York on April 3, 1973. Cooper was the executive of Motorola, and placed the first-ever cellphone call to his major competitor Joel S. Engel a fellow Jew who was also working on cellphone technology. Engel participated in the Apollo space program and worked for AT&T before becoming the research head at Bell Labs, where he had previously co-led the team that developed “the architecture of the cellular network and its parameterization”. Meanwhile, Martin Cooper was born in Chicago to Ukranian-Jewish immigrants. Besides the cellphone, he had many more contributions to radio and communications technology, including “Cooper’s Law”, named in his honour. He went on to become Vice-President and Corporate Director at Motorola, which opened its first branch outside the U.S. in Israel. Their first phone was the DynaTAC, which weighed 1 kilogram and cost $9,000 (adjusting for inflation). Cooper described it as such: “The battery lifetime was 20 minutes, but that wasn’t really a big problem because you couldn’t hold that phone up for that long.” He said that his inspiration for the cellphone came from Captain Kirk’s Communicator device on Star Trek!

Bonet de Lattes was a European physician and astrologer. He is known chiefly as the inventor of an astronomical ring-dial by means of which solar and stellar altitudes can be measured and the time determined with great precision by night as well as by day. He went to Rome, where he became physician to Pope Alexander VI, and later to Pope Leo X.


Carl Djerassi - chemist, novelist, and playwright best known for his contribution to the development of the first oral contraceptive pill (OCP). He is considered "The father of The Pill".


Ferdinand Drucker 

·         American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business

·          corporation. He invented the concept known as management by objectives and self-control, and he has been described as "the founder of modern management.


Arthur Eichengrun

Made pioneering contributions in plastics: co-developing (with Theodore Becker) the first soluble cellulose acetate materials in 1903, called "Cellit", and creating processes for the manufacture of these materials which were influential in the development of injection moulding. During World War I his relatively non-flammable synthetic cellulose acetate lacquers, marketed under the name "Cellon", were important in the aircraft industry. He contributed to photochemistry by inventing the first process for the production and development of cellulose acetate film, which he patented with Becker.


Albert Einstein, Nobel Laureate in Physics, 1921 - theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, effecting a revolution in physics.


Willem Einthoven


Willem Einthoven was a Dutch doctor and physiologist. He invented the first practical electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) in 1895


Peter Paul Eisler

Invented the printed circuit board for radios and other electronic apparatus. After the WWII ended, the United States opened access to his printed circuit innovation and since 1948, it has been used in all airborne instrument electronics. Eisler invented many other practical applications of heating technology, such as the pizza warmer and rear window defroster, but was not so successful in their commercialization.


Benjamin Eisenstadt was the designer of the modern sugar packet and developer of Sweet'N Low. He was the founder of the Cumberland Packing Corporation [1] and a notable philanthropist.

After college, Eisenstadt operated a cafeteria across from the Brooklyn Navy Yard. He switched to making tea bags after his cafeteria business declined.[1]

In the mid 1940s he invented the sugar packet, packaged single servings of table sugar, to utilize his tea bag machinery. He proposed the idea to the major sugar producers, but was unsuccessful in attracting their interest. Since he had not secured a patent before shopping the idea around, sugar producers were then free to use his idea without paying royalties, and they did so.[1]

In 1957 he came up with a formula for a powdered saccharin sweetener. Previously saccharin was sold as liquid drops, or tiny tablets. He mixed the saccharin with dextrose to bulk it up to a teaspoon sized portion, added cream of tartar, and calcium silicate as anti-caking agents. His Cumberland Packing Corporation marketed the product, called Sweet'N Low, in bright pink packets so that the saccharin packets would not be confused with sugar packets at restaurants.

His company was also the first to package soy sauce and other single serving condiments.

Aron Fish –

Created the first push button telephone lock in North America.

Max Fleischer (born Majer Fleischer was an animator, inventor, film director, producer, studio founder, and owner. He became a pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon and served as the head of Fleischer Studios, which he co-founded with his younger brother Dave. He brought such comic characters as Koko the ClownBetty BoopPopeye, and Superman to the movie screen, and was responsible for several technological innovations, including the Rotoscope, the "Bouncing Ball" song films, and the "Stereoptical Process".


Joseph B. Friedman

was an independent inventor with a broad range of interests and ideas. He was issued nine U.S. patents . He observed his young daughter at the counter, struggling to drink out of a straight straw. He took a paper straight straw, inserted a screw and using dental floss, he wrapped the paper into the screw threads, creating corrugations. After removing the screw, the altered paper straw would bend conveniently over the edge of the glass, allowing small children to better reach their beverages. U.S. patent #2,094,268 was issued.


William Frederick (WOLF) Friedman"Dean of American Cryptology" according to the  National Cryptologic Museum, When the US entered WWI the military had no encryption staff so Friedman offered the services of his staff. Friedman became the cryptographer for General Pershing, After WWI, Friedman published "The Index of Coincidence and its Applications in Cryptography", considered by some to be the most important publication in modern cryptography at that time. In 1921 he became chief cryptanalyst for the War Department and later led the Signals Intelligence Service (SIS). Under Friedman’s direction, they decoded the Japanese code “Purple” just prior to Pearl Harbor.  Friedman produced a classic series of textbooks, "Military Cryptanalysis", which was used to train NSA students.


Julius Fromm, Latex Condom.

With the loosening of sexual inhibitions after the prudish Victorian age, people obviously needed protection against unwanted pregnancy and disease.  Condoms then were made of natural “skin” substances (animal intestines) and of rubber.  The rubber condoms were made by wrapping layers of rubber around a mold and then cooking it.  Fromm invented a way to make the latex liquid and manufacture the condoms by dipping a mold into the liquid.  His invention was made in 1916, and the thinner, cheaper condom was a big success throughout Europe.  He also invented the condom vending machine in 1928, leading to the gas station bathroom graffiti, “Don’t buy this gum, it tastes like rubber!”


Alexander Frumkin

Frumkin joined the faculty of Moscow University, where in 1933 he founded—and would head until his death—the department of electrochemistry. His greatest
achievement was the fundamental theory of

electrode reactions, which describes the influence of the structure of the interface between electrode and solution on the rate of electron transfer, especially emphasizing the involvement of the solvated electron and its free energy of solvation. This theory has been confirmed and extended within the framework of contemporary physical electron transfer models. Frumkin introduced the concept of the zero charge potential, the most important characteristic of a metal surface.

Denis Gabor (Günszberg Dénes)   Holography

While working at British Thomson-Houston, he invented holography, in 1947. He experimented with a heavily filtered mercury arc light source. However, the earliest hologram was only realised in 1964 following the 1960 invention of the laser, the first coherent light source. After this, holography became commercially available.

Yisrael Galili born Yisrael Balashnikov is best known for designing the Galil assault rifle. He also helped create the Uzi submachine gun. He was known in the military by the nickname 'Father of the Rifle'. During the Six-Day War in 1967, the Israelis captured many AK-47 assault rifles from the Egyptian soldiers. It proved more reliable and useful in the arid conditions. Inspired by the AK-47, the IDF assessed it thoroughly and began the process of designing a new automatic rifle for which the task was assigned to two groups: one led by Uziel Gal, the designer of the Uzi submachine gun, & Yisrael Galili (Balashnikov) together with Yakov Lior invented the Galil assault rifle which heavily derives most of the features from Kalashnikov AK-47.

Uziel "Uzi" Gal born Gotthard Glas; was an Israeli gun designer, best remembered as the designer and namesake of the Uzi submachine gun.

Joachim Gaunse (Gans)

He introduced a new process for the "making of Copper, vitriall, and Coppris, and smeltinge of Copper and leade ures."[4] Gans figured in the English state papers of the reign of Elizabeth I and a full description of his operations is preserved in these documents,[4] printed by Donald. Gans's most dramatic scientific discovery was to reduce the time to purify a batch of copper ore from sixteen weeks to just four days.[2] Additionally, Gans was able to use the impurities removed from the copper ore in textile mordants.

Gans became the first Bohemian and the first recorded Jew in colonial America when, in 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh recruited him for an expedition to found a permanent settlement in the Virginia territory of the New World.

Dennis Gabor, born as Günszberg Dénes, was an Electrical Engineer and Physicist, most notable for inventing holography, for which he later received the 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics.


 Uziel “Uzi” Gal‎, born Gotthard Glas, was an Israeli gun designer, best remembered as the designer and namesake of the Uzi submachine gun. In the early 1980s, Gal assisted in the creation of the Ruger MP9 submachine gun.


Samuel M. Genensky was an American computer scientist, best known as an inventor for devices to assist sight-impaired persons. He was also well known for his advocacy on behalf of the blind.


He was born with sight, but through a series of incredible medical mistakes, he became virtually blind. The  recognition that he was not blind allowed him to brazenly go to public school and eventually obtain a PhD in Mathematics.


While working at RAND a co-worker, Paul Baran helped Genensky to a better way for partially sighted people to read and write." Eventually, with additional help from other colleagues at RAND, The Aerospace Corporation, and the Polaroid Corporation, they designed and built the first practical closed-circuit television for the partially sighted


David Gestetner was the inventor of the Gestetner stencil duplicator, the first piece of office equipment that allowed production of numerous copies of documents quickly and inexpensively. He also invented the nail clipper.


Charles Paulson Ginsburg was an American engineer and the leader of a research team at Ampex which developed one of the first practical

videotape recorders.


Donald Arthur Glaser was an American physicist, neurobiologist, and the winner of the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the bubble chamber used in subatomic particle physics.


Leopold Godowsky Jrwas an American violinist and chemist, who together with Leopold Mannes created the first practical color transparency filmKodachrome.

While on his way to perform in Europe in late 1922, Mannes made the chance acquaintance of a senior partner in the investment firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Co. and described their progress with color photography. Some months Kuhn Loeb invested in the process.

With financial backing, Godowsky and Mannes built a dedicated laboratory and in 1924 took out additional patents on their work. In 1930 Eastman Kodak was so impressed with the results that they contracted them to move to Rochester and take advantage of Kodak's research facilities.

By 1935, Godowsky and Mannes and the Kodak research staff had developed a marketable subtractive color film for home movies

Emanuel Goldberg was an Israeli physicist and inventor. He contributed a wide range of theoretic and practical advances relating to light and media. His inventions include microdots, the Kinamo movie camera, the Contax 35 mm camera, a very early search engine, and equipment for sensitometry.

Goldberg patented improved methods for electroplating zinc on iron in 1902 and published numerous technical papers on improved printing techniques, reducing moiré effects in half-tone printing, photoengraving and other topics. In 1910 he became well known for an improved method for making neutral gelatin wedges ("Goldberg wedge") that was widely used in sensitometry and the Densograph [de], an instrument that greatly reduced the labor required to measure the characteristic curves of photographic emulsions.

At Ica, he designed an extremely compact 35 mm movie camera, the Kinamo, introduced in 1921 with a spring motor attachment added in 1923 to allow flexible handheld filming.

In 1925 Goldberg demonstrated and published a technique for making microdot at a resolution equivalent to the text 50 complete Bibles per square inch.

At Ica and Zeiss Ikon Goldberg was involved in many innovations and led the design of famous Contax 35 mm still camera.

Goldberg was best known for his extensive studies in sensitometry a design principle for high quality reproduction in two stage, negative-positive photographic processes better known in English as “the gamma rule.”

Kenneth Yigael Goldberg is an American artist, writer, inventor, and researcher in the field of robotics and automation. He is credited with developing the first robot with web interface. His subsequent project, the Telegarden, allowed remote visitors, via the Internet, to view, water, and plant seeds in a living garden. This project was online continuously for nine years in the lobby of the Ars Electronica Center. Goldberg is a leading researcher in networked telerobotics and Cloud Robotics and has developed a series of collaborative tele-operation systems such as the Tele-Actor, in which a human moves through a remote environment guided by remote participants via the Internet.


Sylvan Nathan Goldman was an American businessman and inventor of the shopping cart. Goldman also invented the baggage cart.

Concerned with alleviating the difficulty women had with the self-serve concept as they often had to handle both the shopping basket and children, he developed what was to become the shopping cart. His folding-style shopping carts became extremely popular and Goldman became a multimillionaire by collecting a royalty on every folding design shopping cart in the United States.


Goldman also manufactured the more familiar and more modern "nesting cart" under a license granted by Telescope Carts, Inc.


Peter Carl Goldmark born Péter Károly Goldmark was a Hungarian-American engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing microgroove 3313 rpm phonograph disc, the standard for incorporating multiple or lengthy recorded works on a single disc for two generations. He also

developed field-sequential color technology for color television while at CBS, but it was incompatible with Black and White TV without an adapter.

Lewis Gompertz was an English writer and inventor, and early animal rights and veganism advocate.  In 1821, Gompertz invented an improved velocipede, an early form of bicycle. His machine was powered by pulling on the steering handles, which drove a rack and pinion mechanism, which in turn rotated the front wheel.

Bernard Marshall Gordon is an American engineer, inventor, entrepreneur, and philanthropist. He is considered "the father of high-speed analog-to-digital conversion".

While at EPSCO, in 1953-54, Gordon created high-precision and high-speed signal processing, including the core technologies of analog-to-digital conversion. These developments were fundamental to the subsequent medical diagnostic tools, and have influenced therapeutic practice as well.

Gordon and his engineering teams developed the first solid-state x-ray generator, the first quadrature-base band phased-array ultrasound system, and the first instant imaging computer-aided tomography system, among many other related inventions. These developments enabled subsequent advances in fields as diverse as aerospace telemetryindustrial control, communications, and many modern consumer products which rely on the digitization of analog measurement, audio, video, and optical inputs.

He founded Analogic Corporation which conceived and developed the first digital waveform analyzing and computing instrumentation; "instant imaging" Computed Tomography (CT) system; portable, mobile CT scanner; and the first three-dimensional, multi-slice, dual-energy explosive detection CT system, among many other pioneering products.

He co-founded NeuroLogica Corporation which created a portable imaging system, for neurological scanning applications, which could assist stroke and trauma victims. (acquired by Samsung Electronics).

In 2009, he co-founded Photo Diagnostic Systems, Inc with Olof Johnson. That company that went on to design and manufacture imaging products:the first commercial solid-state PET/CT the NeuroPET-CT for brain imaging. PDSI later developed a security imager that was integrated into the DETECT1000 product by Integrated Defense and Security Solutions, a vertical CT for imaging of horses,


Gordon Gould was an American physicist who is often credited with the invention of the laser.

Gould realized that one could make an appropriate optical resonator by using two mirrors in the form of a Fabry–Pérot interferometer. Gould also considered pumping of the medium by atomic-level collisions, and anticipated many of the potential uses of such a device.

Gould recorded his analysis and suggested applications in a laboratory notebook under the heading "Some rough calculations on the feasibility of a LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation"—the first recorded use of this acronym.[8] Gould's notebook was the first written prescription for making a viable laser and, realizing what he had in hand, he took it to a neighborhood store to have his work notarized. 

Gould mistakenly thought that he had to build a working model of his device in order to patent it. Through a series of unusual events allowed others to obtain a patent on the laser. Gould spent 38 years fighting with the patent office.

Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes independently discovered the importance of the Fabry–Pérot cavity—about three months later—and called the resulting proposed device an "optical maser".

Dahlia Greidinger was an Israeli scientist who helped develop the country's chemical industry. She was the holder of several patents, among them a patent on Controlled release particulate fertilizer composition 'Stable liquid N-P-K fertilizer composition and method of use', a liquid fertilizer composition storable for 6–8 months, and Solid Ammonium Polyphosphate Compositions and Manufacture


Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich was a Soviet aircraft designer who co-founded the Mikoyan-Gurevich military aviation bureau along with Artem Mikoyan. The bureau is famous for its fighter aircraft, rapid interceptors and multi-role combat aircraft which were staples of the Soviet Air Forces throughout the Cold War. In total, 45,000 MiG aircraft have been manufactured domestically, of which 11,000 aircraft were exported. The last plane which Gurevich personally worked on before his retirement was the MiG-25.


Fritz Haber, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, 1918 ) invented the industrial synthesis of ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives. He has been described as the "father of chemical warfare".


Waldemar Mordecai Wolff HaffkineCIE , Lausanne, Switzerland) Recognized as the first microbiologist who developed and used vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague. Was named "a saviour of humanity"


Ruth Handler

Ranking close to the Teddy Bear in the hearts of American children, Barbie has kept girls company since 1959.  Handler and her husband were co-founders of Mattel (with Harold Matson) and were manufacturing plastic items such as picture frames when Ruth got the inspiration for Barbie from their daughter, Barbara.  The invention of Barbie has made millions of little girls happy and millions of parents wondering where their money went when Barbie “needed” all those accessories. The Ken doll was named after her son.


Nathan Handwerker


Nathan’s famous hotdogs. Handwerker and his new wife, Ida Handwerker, opened a small hot dog stand with a two-foot grill on the corner of Surf and Stillwell Avenues in Coney Island. They spiced their hot dogs with Ida's secret recipe and sold them for a nickel. The food stand developed into the fast food chain Nathan's Famous, spearheaded by his son, Murray Handwerker.


David Harel

Harel is best known for his work on dynamic logiccomputabilitydatabase theory, software engineering and modelling biological systems. In the 1980s he invented the graphical language of Statecharts for specifying and programming reactive systems, which has been adopted as part of the UML standard. Since the late 1990s he has concentrated on a scenario-based approach to programming such systems, launched by his co-invention (with W. Damm) of Live Sequence Charts.

Harel co-founded the software company I-Logix, which in 2006 became part of IBM.

Ferdinand Frédéric Henri

Ferdinand Frédéric Henri was a French chemist and pharmacist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds

Gavriel Iddan is an Israeli electro-optical engineer and the inventor of wireless capsule endoscopy. He got the idea for an endoscopic capsule while on sabbatical in Boston from a neighbour of his, an Israeli gastroenterologist suffering from undiagnosed stomach pain. After working on the idea for almost twenty years, he successfully created a prototype in 1998 – a disposable pill-sized camera that passes straight through the digestive tract, continuously broadcasting to an external receiver. Iddan's invention was approved by the FDA in 2001.


Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov was a Soviet physician, known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for the method of surgery named after him, the Ilizarov surgery.


His experiments led to the design of what is known as an Ilizarov apparatus, which holds a severed bone in place, by virtue of a framework and pins through the bone, and separates halves of the bone by a tiny amount; by repeating this over time, at the rate of the bone's regrowth, it is possible to extend a bone by a desired amount.

Hanon Ilyich Izakson was a Soviet designer of farm machines at the 'Communar' factory, progressing from a designer to chief designer, later becoming the chief designer for self-propelled combine harvesters at Tula Design Bureau.. Under his direction, several grain-harvesting machines and other agricultural machines were developed for various climate zones of the USSR.



Moritz von JacobiAfter many other more or less successful attempts with relatively weak rotating and reciprocating apparatus Prussian/Russian Moritz von Jacobi created the first real rotating electric motor in May 1834. It developed remarkable mechanical output power. His motor set a world record, which Jacobi improved four years later in September 1838. His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river. It was also in 1839/40 that other developers managed to build motors with similar and then higher performance.

Amos Joel

Did significant research in the development of automated, electronically switched telephone networks. His work revolutionized telephone switching systems worldwide.  Joel's 1972 US Patent No. 3,663,762, "Mobile Communication System," is the basis of the switching technology that made cellular telephone networks possible.

Albert Kahn was an American industrial architect. He was accredited the architect of Detroit and designed industrial plant complexes such as the Ford River Rouge automobile complex. He designed the construction of Detroit skyscrapers and office buildings as well as mansions in the city suburbs. He led an organization of hundreds of architect associates and in 1937, designed 19% of all architect-designed industrial factories in the United States.


Victor Kaplan

He invented the Kaplan turbine, a revolutionary water turbine that was especially fitted to produce electricity from large streams with only a moderate incline. From 1912 to 1913 he received four patents on these kinds of turbines.


Theodore von Kármán was a Hungarian-American mathematicianaerospace engineer, and physicist who was active primarily in the fields of aeronautics and astronautics. He was responsible for many key advances in aerodynamics, notably on supersonic and hypersonic airflow characterization. He is regarded as an outstanding aerodynamic theoretician of the 20th century. Kármán's fame was in the use of mathematical tools to study fluid flow, and the interpretation of those results to guide practical designs. He was instrumental in recognizing the importance of swept-back wings ubiquitous in modern jet aircraft..


Specific contributions include theories of non-elastic buckling, unsteady wakes in circum-cylinder flow, stability of laminar flowturbulenceairfoils in steady and unsteady flow, boundary layers, and supersonic aerodynamics


Ronald A. Katz is an inventor and president of Ronald A. Katz Technology Licensing LP. His inventions are primarily in the field of automated call center technology. Katz has developed a portfolio of more than 50 US patents covering his innovations. His inventions are related to toll free numbers, automated attendant, automated call distribution, voice response unit, computer telephone integration and speech recognition.


Charles David Kelman was an American 

ophthalmologist, surgeon, inventor, jazz musician, entertainer, and Broadway producer. Known as the father of phacoemulsification, he developed many of the medical devices, instruments, implant lenses and techniques used in cataract surgery. In the early 1960s, he began the use of cryosurgery to remove cataracts and repair retinal detachments. Cryosurgery for cataracts remained in heavy use until 1978, when phacoemulsification, a procedure Kelman also developed in 1967, became the modern standard treatment


Sir Aaron Klug OM  was a Lithuanian-born British biophysicist and chemist. He was a winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes.


Hedwig Kohnwas a physicist who was one of only three women (along Lise Meitner and Hertha Sponer) to obtain habilitation (the qualification for university teaching) in physics in Germany before World War II

Kohn was trained by Otto Lummer in the quantitative determination of the intensity of light, both from broad-band sources, such as a "black body", and from the discrete emission lines of atoms and molecules. She further developed such methods and devised ways of extracting information from intensity measurements and from emission line shapes.


Rudolf Kompfner was an Austrian-born inventor, physicist and architect, best known as the inventor of the traveling-wave tube (TWT) which is a specialized vacuum tube that is used in electronics to amplify radio frequency (RF) signals in the microwave range


Arthur Korn Physicist, mathematician and inventor. He was involved in the development of the fax machine, specifically the transmission of photographs or telephotography.


He experimented and wrote on long-distance photography, the phototelautograph. He pioneered the use of light sensitive selenium cells which supplanted the function of the stylus, and used a Nernst lamp as a light source. On 17 October 1906, he transmitted a photograph of Crown Prince William over a distance of 1800 km.


Raymond Kurzweil- Reading System for the blind.

In 1974, Kurzweil founded Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc. and led development of the first omni-font optical character recognition system, a computer program capable of recognizing text written in any normal font. Before that time, scanners had only been able to read text written in a few fonts. He decided that the best application of this technology would be to create a reading machine, which would allow blind people to understand written text by having a computer read it to them aloud. However, this device required the invention of two enabling technologies—the CCD flatbed scanner and the text-to-speech synthesizer. Development of these technologies was completed at other institutions such as Bell Labs, and on January 13, 1976, the finished product was unveiled during a news conference headed by him and the leaders of the National Federation of the Blind.


After a 1982 meeting with Stevie Wonder, in which Wonder lamented the divide in capabilities and qualities between electronic synthesizers and traditional musical instruments, Kurzweil was inspired to create a new generation of music synthesizers capable of accurately duplicating the sounds of real instruments. The Kurzweil K250 was capable of imitating a number of instruments, and in tests musicians were unable to discern the difference between the Kurzweil K250 on piano mode from a normal grand piano. The recording and mixing abilities of the machine, coupled with its abilities to imitate different instruments, made it possible for a single user to compose and play an entire orchestral piece.


Hedy Lamarr - film actress, co-invented early form of spread spectrum communications technology, a key to modern wireless communication.

During World War II, Lamarr learned that radio-controlled torpedoes, an emerging technology in naval war, could easily be jammed and set off course. She thought of creating a frequency-hopping signal that could not be tracked or jammed. She contacted her friend, composer and pianist George Antheil, to help her develop a device for doing that, and he succeeded by synchronizing a miniaturized player-piano mechanism with radio signals.They drafted designs for the frequency-hopping system.Their invention was granted a patent but at that time the U.S. Navy was not receptive to considering inventions coming from outside the military. In 1962 (at the time of the Cuban missile crisis), an updated version of their design at last appeared on Navy ships.

Maurice Levy - Lipstick (1915)

In the US. lipstick became widely popular after Maurice Levy's 1915 invention of the metal lipstick container.


Edwin Herbert Land - Instant Photography (1947)

Land was an American scientist and inventor, best known as the co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation. He invented inexpensive filtersfor polarizing light, a practical

system of in-camera instant photography, and the retinex theory of color vision, among other things

He had 535 patents.


Lev Landau, Nobel Laureate in Physics, 1962 - theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics e.g. density matrix method in quantum mechanics, the quantum mechanical theory of diamagnetism, the theory of superfluidity, the theory of second order phase transitions, the theory of superconductivity, the Landau damping in plasma physics, the Landau pole in quantum electrodynamics, and the two-component theory of neutrinos.


Jaron Zepel Lanier is an American computer scientistvisual artist,  Considered a founder of the field of virtual reality, Lanier and Thomas G. Zimmerman left Atari in 1985 to found VPL Research, Inc., the first company to sell VR goggles and wired gloves.


Albert D Lasker Known as the father of modern advertising. Lasker’s agency was the first to not only sell space for advertisements but actually write the ads.

Bonet de Lattes was a European Jewish physician and astrologer known chiefly as the inventor of an astronomical ring-dial by means of which solar and stellar altitudes can be measured and the time determined with great precision by night as well as by day. In Rome, he became physician to Pope Alexander VI, and later to Pope Leo X.


Esther Miriam Zimmer Lederberg (December 18, 1922 – November 11, 2006) was an American microbiologist and a pioneer of bacterial genetics. She discovered the bacterial virus λ and the bacterial fertility factor F, devised the first implementation of replica plating, and furthered the understanding of the transfer of genes between bacteria by specialized transduction. Lederberg also founded and directed the now-defunct Plasmid Reference Center at Stanford University,


Leon Max Lederman was an American experimental physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1988, along with Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger, for research on neutrinos. He also received the Wolf Prize in Physics in 1982, along with Martin Lewis Perl, for research on quarks and leptons.


Abraham Lempel is an Israeli computer scientist and one of the fathers of the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithms.

Solomon Aaron Leschinsky  invented the Tyne-Tot Weaning Cup, a plastic cup designed for babies.

David Levy - inventor with more than a dozen patents. He worked for five years at Apple, replacing the Trackball with the first Touchpad and repositioning the laptop keyboard from the front to the back. He developed Levy's Fastap keypad technology for cell phones/PDA devices. In 2003, he invented the concept of tracing a finger over the image of a QWERTY keyboard to indicate which word the user is trying to type, for which he received US patent.

Maurice Levy 


Lipstick became widely popular after Maurice Levy's 1915 invention of the metal lipstick container.

Claude Levi-Strauss

No, he did not invent blue jeans (probably wishes he did!).  Claude is called the Father of Modern Anthropology for his work concerning structuralism and structural anthropology.  He also studied mythology and applied his structuralist approach to that field.  President of France (at the time) Nicolas Sarkozy called him “The greatest ethnologist of our time.” upon his death at age 100 in 2009.  Born in Belgium, Levi-Strauss spent most of his life in France.

Julius Edgar Lilienfeld  was an Austro-Hungarian, and later American physicist and electrical engineer, who was credited with the first patent on the field-effect transistor (FET) (1925). Because of his failure to publish articles in learned journals and because high-purity semiconductor materials were not available yet, his FET patent never achieved fame, causing confusion for later inventors.


Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmannwas a Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, and Nobel laureate in physics for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.


Leonard "Lenny" Liptonis an American author, filmmaker, lyricist and inventor. At age 19, Lipton wrote the poem that became the basis for the lyrics to the song "Puff the Magic Dragon". He went on to write books on independent filmmaking and become a pioneer in the field of projected three-dimensional imagery. His technology is used to show 3D films on more than 30,000 theater screens worldwide. In 2021, he published The Cinema in Flux, an 800-page illustrated book on the history of cinema technology.


Solomon Aaron Leschinsky was an American inventor. and product developer, and successfully manufactured the Tyne-Tot Weaning Cup, a plastic cup designed for babies. 


Otto Loewi was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend that helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. 


Bernard Lown  was a Lithuanian-American cardiologist and inventor. Lown was the original developer of the direct current defibrillator for cardiac resuscitation, and the cardioverter for correcting rapid disordered heart rhythms. He introduced a new use for the drug lidocaine to control heartbeat disturbances.


Joseph Mahler (cousin of composer and conductor

Gustav Mahler) Invented the vectograph, a type of stereoscopic print or transparency viewed by using the polarized 3D glasses most commonly associated with projected 3D motion pictures. It revealed camouflaged enemy positions in aerial photography glasses during WWII.

Theodore Harold Maiman co-inventor of the Laser. He  led a team working on masers (these are like lasers, but using microwaves). His team was able to improve the maser from a 2.5-ton machine to a small 4 pound device. In 1960, he succeeded in creating the first working laser.

Leopold Damrosch Mannes was an American musician, who, together with Leopold Godowsky Jr., created the first practical color transparency filmKodachrome.


Herbert Manfred "ZeppoMarx (February 25, 1901 – November 30, 1979) was an American actor, comedian, theatrical agent, and engineer. He was the youngest and last survivor of the five Marx Brothers. He appeared in the first five Marx Brothers feature films, from 1929 to 1933, but then left the act to start his second career as an engineer and theatrical agent.


Zeppo had great mechanical skills and was largely responsible for keeping the Marx family car running. He later owned a company that machined parts for the war effort during World War II, Marman Products Co. of Inglewood, California, later acquired by the Aeroquip Company.This company produced a motorcycle, called the Marman Twin, and the Marman clamps used to hold the "Fat Manatomic bomb inside the B-29 bomber Bockscar..whichdropped a Fat Man nuclear weapon over the Japanese city of Nagasaki during World War II. They obtained patents for a wristwatch that monitored the pulse rate and alarmed if the heartbeat became irregular and a therapeutic pad for delivering moist heat to a patient.


Louis Marx was an American toy maker and businessman whose company, Louis Marx and Company, was the largest toy company in the world in the 1950s. He was described by some as an experienced businessman with the mind of child.

Marx was known by numerous nicknames, including "Toycoon," "the Henry Ford of the toy industry," "the hawk of the toy industry," and "the toy king of America."



Melanie Joy Mayron is an American actress and director of film and television best known for portraying the role of photographer Melissa Steadman on the ABC drama thirtysomething for which she won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series in 1989.


In 1998, she and her chemist father developed a line of skincare products for babies and adults called Mayron's Goods.


Mordechai Meirovitz (born 1930 in Romania) was an Israeli telecommunications expert. Meirovitz invented the code-breaking board game Master Mind. After being rejected by leading games companies, he sparked the interest of a Leicester-based company, Invicta Plastics, which restyled and renamed the game. Released in 1971, the game sold over 50 million sets in 80 countries, making it the most successful new game of the 1970s.


Erich Mendelsohn was a German architect, known for his expressionist architecture in the 1920s, as well as for developing a dynamic functionalism in his projects for department stores and cinemas. Mendelsohn is a pioneer of the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne architecture, notably with his 1921 Mossehaus design.


Viktor Meyer was a German chemist and significant contributor to both organic and inorganic chemistry. He is best known for inventing an apparatus for determining vapour densities, the Viktor Meyer apparatus, and for discovering thiophene, a heterocyclic compound.


Albert Abraham Michelson  was an American 

physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, becoming the first American to win the Nobel Prize in a science.

Michelson had invented astronomical interferometry and built such an instrument at the Mount Wilson Observatory which was used to measure the diameter of the red giant Betelgeuse.

Morris and Rose Michtom, Teddy Bear.

Taking inspiration from a cartoon of President Teddy Roosevelt showing a little bear mercy while hunting, Morris and his wife Rose created the Teddy Bear and turned it into an American icon.  Cracked fact:  Their daughter appeared in 40+ episodes of the television show, Get Smart as a background character.

Mikhail Leontyevich Mil was a Russian aerospace engineer and scientist. He was the founder and general designer of the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant.Mil's creations won many domestic and international awards and set 69 world records. Most notably, the Mil Mi-4 won a gold medal in the Brussels International Exhibition in 1958. In 1971, after his death, his Mil Mi-12 (production name of V-12 prototype) won the Sikorsky Prize as the most powerful helicopter in the world. Unlike his Soviet counterpart, Nikolai Kamov, Mil enjoyed great prestige due to his single-rotor helicopters, as Kamov used the co-axial rotor layout, which was more controversial.


Hinda Milleris known for her part in the invention of the sports bra.


Henri Moissan- French chemist who won a Nobel Prize in 1906 for the invention of the electric furnace that is named after him.


Georges Montefiore-Levi  was a Belgian politician, industrialist and inventor who created the first phosphorus bronze.

Phosphor bronze is a member of the family of copper alloys. It is composed of copper that is alloyed with 0.5–11% of tin and 0.01–0.35% phosphorus, and may contain other elements to confer specific properties (e.g. lead at 0.5–3.0% to form free-machining phosphor bronze). Alloyed tin increases the corrosion resistance and strength of copper, while phosphorus increases its wear resistance and stiffness.

These alloys are notable for their toughnessstrength, low coefficient of friction, and fine grain. The phosphorus reduces the viscosity of the molten alloy, which makes it easier and cleaner to cast and reduces grain boundaries between crystallite

Frank Reginald Nunes Nabarro MBE OMS FRSwas an English-born South African physicist and one of the pioneers of solid-state physics, which underpins much of 21st-century technology. At the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, 

Nabarro built the physics department into one of the strongest in the country and moulded it into a leader in metallurgical research. His own research centred on "creep", or gradual metal failure under imposed stress, and crystal dislocations, which results in the deformation of metals.


Abraham Nemeth (October 16, 1918 – October 2, 2013) was an American mathematician and inventor. Nemeth was blind, and was known for developing a system for blind people to read and write mathematics.  He was blind from birth and distinguished himself from many other blind people by being able to write visual print letters and mathematical symbols on paper and blackboards just like sighted people, a skill he learned as a child.

Ultimately, he developed the Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation, which has gone through 4 revisions since its initial development, and continues to be widely used today.

Pedro Nunes was a Portugese mathematician, cosmographer, and professor. Considered one of the greatest mathematicians of his time, Nunes is best known for his contributions to the nautical sciences (navigation and cartography), which he approached, for the first time, in a mathematical way. He was the first to propose the idea of a loxodrome, and was the inventor of several measuring devices, including the nonius (from which Vernier scale was derived), named after his Latin surname.

J. Robert Oppenheimer - a theoretical physicist. He is often called the "father of the atomic bomb".


Stanford Robert Ovshinsky was an American

engineerscientist and inventor who over a span of fifty years was granted well over 400 patents, mostly in the areas of energy and information. Many of his inventions have had wide-ranging applications. Among the most prominent are: the nickel-metal hydride battery, which has been widely used in laptop computersdigital camerascell phones, and electric and hybrid cars; flexible thin-film solar energy laminates and panels; flat screen liquid crystal displays; rewritable CD and

DVD discs; hydrogen fuel cells; and nonvolatile phase-change memory.


Jacob Rabinow was an engineer and inventor who earned a total of 229 U.S. patents on a variety of f mechanical, optical and electrical devices- letter-sorting machine, optical character recognition, magnetic disk memory.


William John Macquorn Rankine was a Scottish mechanical engineer who also contributed to civil engineering, physics and mathematics. He was a founding contributor, with Rudolf Clausius and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), to the science of thermodynamics, particularly focusing on the first of the three thermodynamic laws. He developed the Rankine scale, an equivalent to the Kelvin scale of temperature, but in degrees Fahrenheit rather than Celsius.


François Isaac de Rivaz  was a French-born Swiss inventor. He invented a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine with electric ignition and described it in a French patent published in 1807. In 1808 he fitted it into a primitive working vehicle – "the world's first internal combustion powered automobile"It was powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen manually ignited by electric spark, but the engine neither involved the in-cylinder compression, the crank, nor the connecting rod.


Robert H.Rines- microwave scanning system, high-res radar and sonar


Harold A. Rosen- synchronous communications satellite

Harold A. Rosen was an American electrical engineer. He became known as the leader of the development of the first geostationary satellite at Hughes Aircraft ( Syncom 2 1963, Syncom 3 , 1964). Rosen's main idea was to let the satellite rotate (and develop a solar-powered propulsion system for it) so that its orbit stabilized.


Samuel Ruben  teamed with Philip Mallory to create what would become Duracell International. Ruben developed the mercury button cell in 1942 to replace the zinc-carbon batteries at a request from the Army Signal Corps.

With over 100 inventions credited to him personally, one of the most important was the dry electrolytic aluminum capacitor, the solid-state magnesium/cupric sulfide rectifier (a device that converted regular household electric current for use in radios), and the vacuum tube relay, the quick heater vacuum tube, and the concept of a balanced-cell mercury battery.


Reinhold Rudenberg was a German-American electrical engineer and inventor, credited with many innovations in the electric power and related fields. Aside from improvements in electric power equipment, especially large alternating current generators, among others were the electrostatic-lens electron microscopecarrier-current communications on power lines, a form of phased array radar, an explanation of power blackoutspreferred number series, and the number prefix "Giga-"


Fran's Sacher - Austrian born confectioner of the world famous chocolate cake "Sachertorte"


William Salcer - designed tanks and armoured cars, jet engines for Israeli Air Force. Held 12 patents. After

the Suez Crisis, in 1958 Salcer decided that Israel would experience endless warfare and immigrated to the United States, where he developed plastic tablecloths and a plastic display for earrings. He also designed a new type of hockey puck and hockey sticks after his son Ron Salcer became an agent for hockey players

·         David Stern-Salomons

·         Arthur L Schawlow- laser, Nobel Prize 1981

·         Morris Schwartz

·         David Schwartz - aviation inventor

·         Adi Shamir

·         Isaac Shoenberg

Isaac Singer

Elias Howe invented the sewing machine, but his machine was designed for professional tailors etc. Singer invented the machine that was user friendly to the average housewife.


·         Hayyim Slonimski

·         Sass Somekh

Izrael Abraham Staffel  was a Polish-Jewish inventor, watchmaker, mechanic, designer of calculating machines.

In 1845, at an industrial exhibition in Warsaw, he exhibited for the first time a calculating machine he had designed and produced. The result of ten years work, this machine was able to add, subtract, divide, multiply and obtain a square root. The machine earned a silver medal at this exhibition.

The machine was later presented to the Russian Emperor, who ordered that 1,500 silver roubles be paid to Staffel

He continued to make improvements to the machine and at The Great Exhibition in Crystal Palace. Staffel was awarded a gold medal for the best machine of this kind.

He also designed and produced a two-colour printing press. Which was used for printing of the first Polish stamps in 1860. The machine was able to print at the rate of 1,000 sheets per hour. He had also added a copy counter to the machine that ensured a precise count of sheets printed. This machine was later used to print banknotes.



·         Lina Stern - best known for pioneering work on blood-brain barrier, hemato-encephalic barrier 1921.

·         Leo H. Sternbach- Valium

Benno Strauss

On 17 October 1912, Krupp engineers Benno Strauss and Eduard Maurer (g) patented austenitic stainless steel as Nirosta.


Levi Strauss (1829 – 1902) founded the first company to manufacture blue jeans, Levi Strauss & Co., in 1853 in San Francisco, California. Jacob Davis, a Latvian

immigrant, was a Reno, Nevada tailor who frequently purchased bolts of denim cloth from Levi Strauss & Co.'s wholesale house. After one of Davis's customers kept purchasing cloth to reinforce torn pants, he had an idea to use copper rivets to reinforce the points of strain, such as on the pocket corners and at the base of the button fly. Davis did not have the money needed to purchase a patent, so he wrote to Strauss suggesting that they go into business together. After Strauss accepted Davis's offer, on May 20, 1873, the two men received U.S. Patent 139,121 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The patented rivet was later incorporated into the company's jean design and advertisements. Contrary to an advertising campaign suggesting that Levi Strauss sold his first jeans to gold miners during the California Gold Rush (which peaked in 1849), the manufacturing of denim overalls only began in the 1870s.

Joseph Szydlowski  Skryhiczyn (in Chełm CountyPoland, was a Polish-Israeli aircraft engine designer who founded Turbomeca in France where he designed an unusual supercharger compressor which was used by the Hispano-Suiza 12Y in the Dewoitine D.520 fighter. It utilized an axial compressor rather than the usual centrifugal compressor that was predominant at the time in aircraft engines. He founded Turbomeca in Paris in 1938 and developed small turbine engines for helicopters.After the Six-day war, in response to Charles De Gaulle's embargo on Israel, Szydlowski established a factory for the production of jet engines, Beit Shemesh.

Alexander Y. Tetelbaum is a Ukranian educator, inventor, scientist, academician, and entrepreneur. He has been a  pioneer in the Electronic Design Automation (EDA) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) industries since the 1960s. He holds more than 40 US patents. 

Bruno Touschek Was an Austrian physicist, a survivor of the Holocaust, and initiator of research on electron-positron colliders.

On 7 March 1960, Touschek gave a talk in Frascati where he proposed the idea of a collider: a particle accelerator where a particle and its antiparticle circulate the same orbit in opposite direction. When bunches of opposite-moving particles and antiparticles collide, they annihilate and produce new particles depending on the collision energy. This concept is at the base of all present-day very high energy particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The first electron-positron storage ring, called Anello Di Accumulazione (ADA), was constructed in Frascati under Touschek's supervision in the early sixties. During the next decade more electron-positron rings followed and their outcomes changed completely some of the physics community perceptions of the world. One of the transitions, the elementary hadrons by then turned to be composite particles after.


Joseph Tykociński-Tykociner was a Polish engineer and a pioneer of sound-on-film technology.

On June 9, 1922, Tykociner publicly demonstrated for the first time a motion picture with a soundtrack optically recorded directly onto the film. When Tykociner demonstrated the first sound-on-film motion picture recordings the projector had a photoelectric cell made by his Illinois colleague Jakob Kunz at its heart. In the first sounds ever publicly heard from a composite image-and-audio film, Helena Tykociner, the inventor's wife, spoke the words, "I will ring," and then rang a bell. Next, Ellery Paine, head of the university's Department of Electrical Engineering, recited the Gettysburg Address. The demonstration was written up in the New York World on July 30, 1922.[1] A dispute between Tykociner and university president David Kinley over patent rights to the process thwarted its commercial application.


Many people consider Theodore Case as the inventor of the sound film even though Tykociński made sound film 3 years before him. TYK  In 1919, Lee De Forest filed patents for his sound-on-film process Phonofilm, unaware of Tykociner's work. DeForest, working with Theodore Case, produced several short films in 1921 and 1922, and introduced Phonofilm at a presentation at the Rivoli Theater in New York City on April 15, 1923


Stanisław Marcin Ulam was a Polish scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics who

invented the Monte Carlo method of computation,


Gil Weinberg is an Israeli-born American musician

and inventor of experimental musical instruments and musical robots. Weinberg is a professor of musical tech He has developed a number of novel musical instruments for novices, such as the Beatbugs, and the Squeezables  before conceiving the field of Robotic Musicianship. In 2005, he created the world first improvising robotHaile, which can listen to human musicians, improvise and play along using a variety of musical algorithms. His next inventions were Shimon an improvising robotic marimba player that can improvise like jazz masters, and Travis (also known as Shimi), a smart-phone enabled robotic musical companion that is designed to enhance listeners musical experiences. Shimi is currently being commercialized by Tovbot Inc.ology at Georgia Tech and founding director of the Georgia Tech Center for Music Technology.


Chaim Weizmann, First President of Israel - He was also a chemist who developed the ABE-process, which produces acetone through bacterial fermentation, one of the early modern biotechnological processes.

Weizmann was also a noted biochemist considered to be 'the father' of industrial fermentation. He developed the acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation process, which produces acetonen-Butanol and ethanol through bacterial fermentation. His acetone production method was of great importance in the manufacture of cordite explosive propellants for the British war industry during World War I.

Richard Willstätter, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, 1915 - organic chemist who determined the structure of chlorophyll and other plant pigments, and co-invented paper chromatography.

Paul Winchell        (born Paul Wilchinsky) 

Winchell, who had medical training, was also an inventor, becoming the first person to build and patent a mechanical artificial heart, implantable in the chest cavity (US Patent #3097366).


Richard Willstätter, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, 1915 - organic chemist whose determined the structure of chlorophyll and other plant pigments, and co-invented paper chromatography.


Ricardo Wolf - invented the process of recovering iron from smelting process residue. He established the Wolf Foundation financing The Wolf Prize awarded in six fields: AgricultureChemistryMathematicsMedicinePhysics, and an Art.


Rosalyn Sussman Yalowwas an American medical physicist, and co-recipient of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (along with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally ) for their development of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique.

She was the second woman (while the first was Gerty Cori ), and the first Native American to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology


Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an immunoassay that uses radiolabeled molecules in a stepwise formation of immune complexes. A RIA is a very sensitive in vitro assay technique used to measure concentrations of substances, usually measuring antigen

concentrations (for example, hormone levels in blood) by use of antibodies.


Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof - the creator of Esperanto, the most successful constructed language designed for international communication.


Abraham Zacuto - astronomer, astrologer, mathematician and historian who served as Royal Astronomer in the 15th century to King John II of Portugal. The crater Zagut on the Moon is named after him.


Moshe Zakai

Zakai's main research concentrated on the study of the theory of stochastic processes and its application to information and control problems; namely, problems of noise in communication radar and control systems. The basic class of random processes which represent the noise in such systems are known as "white noise" or the "Wiener process" where the white noise is "something like a derivative" of the Wiener process. Since these processes vary quickly with time, the classical differential and integral calculus is not applicable to such processes. In the 1940s Kiyoshi Itō developed a stochastic calculus (the Ito calculus) for such random processes.

Zakai derived a considerably simpler solution for the optimal filte for non linear problems. It is known as the Zakai equation,[5] and has been the starting point for further research work in this field.


Zeev Zalevsky - is best known for his work on Super Resolution. He developed some techniques to overcome resolution limits and in particular for his work in theoretical and experimental definition of various approaches for exceeding Abbe's classical limit of optical resolution.


Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich - played an important role in the development of Soviet nuclear and thermonuclear weapons.


Abraham Zelmanov - He first constructed, in 1944, the complete mathematical method to calculate physical observable quantities in the General Theory of Relativity (the theory of chronometric invariants). Applying the mathematical apparatus, in the 1940s, he established the basics of the theory of inhomogeneous anisotropic universe, where he determined specific kinds of all cosmological models — scenarios of evolution — which could be theoretically conceivable for a truly inhomogeneous and anisotropic Universe in the framework of Einstein's theory.


Jacob Ziv - Israeli computer scientist who, along with Abraham Lempel, developed the LZ family of lossless data compression algorithmsease insert your text here.